The Antitank Encyclopedia

The Antitank Encyclopedia

Antitank warfare in WW1

WWI antitank guns & rifles: As entente tanks entered the fray, the Germans quickly adapted past the surprise and adopted the K bullet, the Tankgewehr M1918 rifle, the MG18, and the antitank gun 3.7 cm TAK 1918. These were the first attempts to stop tanks, and a race, which is still not over, started more than 100 years ago...

It's very clear that as soon as tanks were introduced on the battlefield, at Flers-Courcelette in April 1917 (battle of the Somme) it provoked the expected panic within Germans troops at first. The revolutionary new weapon proved its worth. However as soon as reports of these reach the German High Command, countr-measures were st in place: Instructions for field artillery to fire in direct trajectory on tanks, K-bullets for regular rifles distributed to the infantry, and developement of a dedicated antitank rifle. This was only the beginning.

Development in WW2

WW2 Antitank rifles, guns, rockets and Self propelled grenades - Killing Tanks became an industry: It was clear for all in 1918 that tanks needed a countermeasure, and interwar light guns, even machine-guns and still rifles seemed to do the job. But with armour progresses, heavier guns and infantry weapons such as the piat, bazooka and panzerfaust became a new threat for tanks.

During WW2, belligerents used dozens of different models of antitank weapons, ranging from interwar antitank rifles to dual purpose high velocity guns like the feared German 88 mm, mines and even rockets. WW2 showed also a race to have these new antitank guns placed in armoured vehicles and tanks as soon as possible. At the end of the war, cruisers-caliber guns were not uncommon on the battlefield, but infantry, with the Panzerfaust or the Bazooka, now had means to defeat tanks. Still, no guided antitank missile was at hand but the Ruhrstahl X-4 to 10 series (Rotkäppchen).

Cold war Tech

Cold War AT guns and missiles: The missile revolution:

Both NATO and the Warsaw pact, benefiting from German research in 1945, progressed in the field of missiles, and the 1950s saw an explosion of models, even carried by dedicated tanks or going to infantry fighting vehicles. Armour progressed accordingly and the race intensified until 1990, and is not over yet.

The great revolution of the cold war, already tested in 1944, was the missile. Instead of trying to fire on a tank at a distance, it was soon found safer and more effective to send a missile on a tank or any armoured vehicle. Soon, missiles entered the fray and rapidly earned their battlefield laurels at multiple occasions. Tanks were protected against them, in a race which is still on today. From heavy missiles to portable ones such as the RPG, the catalog of antitank weaponry and new adversaries for tanks, like dedicated planes such as the A-10 and Frogfoot or combat helicopters, further complicated the environment in which armoured vehicles operates. It clearly made it more threatening, in particular in an urban environment.

Future antitank warfare

A global industry: Modern AT guns and missiles

A today's paradox is that tanks are somewhat seen are obsolete -it has been claimed many times over the decades), their conception going back sometimes 40 years prior, while versatile infantry fighting vehicles of all kind, wheeled or tracked, seems on the rise. If guns are no longer used, a new generation of AT missiles seems to be more potent than ever.

If classic tank guns shells are defeated now by the most recent and advanced armour combinations, most recent, high tech solution had been to target arguably the weakest part of a tank, its deck and roof armor. Using a plunging missile like the Javelin for example, or a slealthy drone, with any kind of AT payload. Drones are affordable more discreet than helicopters. Belarus possessed an antitank rocket lifted by four small props and Iran developed a a drone carrying Sadid-I AT missiles. Antitank ammunitions fired by field artillery could also be deadly. All this made tanks more and more vulnerable on the battlefield, something confirmed by the recent ukraine war.

Antitank Guns & Antitank List:

    German AT guns

  • 13.2 MG 18 TuF (WWI)
  • 3.7 cm TAK 1918 (WWI)
  • Mauser M1918 (WWI)
  • 2.8 cm sPzB 41
  • 3.7 cm PaK 35/36 (Nazi Germany)
  • 4.2 cm PaK 41
  • 5 cm PaK 38
  • 7.5 cm PaK 97/38
  • 7.5 cm PaK 40
  • 7.5 cm PaK 50
  • 7.5 cm PaK 41
  • 7.62 cm PaK 36(r)
  • 8 cm PAW 600
  • 8.8 cm PaK 43/41
  • 10 cm PAW 1000
  • 12.8 cm PaK 44
  • French AT guns

  • 25 mm Hotchkiss ATG
  • 25 mm APX modèle 1937
  • AC 37 AT gun
  • 47mm SA 37
  • AC 47 anti-tank gun
  • GIAT CN90F1/DEFA D921
  • Japanese AT guns

  • Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun (Jap)
  • Type 97 20 mm AT Gun (Jap)
  • Type 94 37 mm (Japan)
  • Type 1 anti-tank gun (Japan)
  • Vickers Type 40 mm AT/AA Gun (Japan)
  • Soviet AT guns

  • 37-mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K) (USSR)
  • 45 mm anti-tank gun M1932 (19-K) (USSR)
  • 45-mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K) (USSR)
  • 45-mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42) (USSR)
  • 57-mm anti-tank gun M1941 and M1943 (ZiS-2) (USSR)
  • Czech AT guns

  • 3,7cm KPÚV vz. 34 (Czechoslovakia)
  • 3,7cm KPÚV vz. 37 (Czechoslovakia)
  • 4cm kanón vz. 36 (Czechoslovakia)
  • 4,7cm KPÚV vz. 38 (Czechoslovakia)
  • British AT guns

  • Ordnance QF 2 pounder (UK)
  • QF 6 pounder 7 cwt (UK)
  • 76.2 QF 17 pounder Gun (UK)
  • US AT guns

  • 37 mm gun M3 (US)
  • 57mm M1 Antitank Gun (US)
  • 76.2 3-inch Gun M5 (US)
  • 90mm Gun (US)
  • Others

  • 37 mm Bofors (Sweden)
  • C.47 F.R.C. Mod.31 (Belgium)
  • 4.7 cm Böhler (Austria)
  • Cannone da 47/32 M35 (Italy)
  • 47 mm Schneider-Concordia (Romania)
  • 75 mm Reșița Model 1943 (Romania)
  • Coldwar AT guns

  • 85 mm vz. 52 (Czechoslovakia)
  • 85 mm antitank gun D-48 (USSR)
  • MECAR KEnerga 90mm Belgium
  • Pak 57 (Switzerland)
  • 100-mm field gun M1944 (BS-3) USSR
  • 2A19/T-12 USSR
  • 2A29/MT-12 Russia
  • 100 mm vz. 53 Czechoslovakia
  • Type 86 anti-tank gun China
  • 100 mm anti-tank gun M1977 Romania
  • 105mm Gun T8 US
  • 2A60 Russia
  • 2A45 Russia

Antitank guns

British antitank guns ww2 Ordnance QF 17-pounder

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1942 to 10,000+

The Ordnance Quick-Firing 17-pounder translated into 76.2 mm (3 inches). Probably the best and most iconic antitank gun of the allies in WW2. Developed from 1940 already to replace the QF 6-pounder, prototypes were tested from mid-1942 up to early 1943 and it was first operational in the Italian Campaign. used on its own carriage, it was also adapted on many British tanks. The APDS shot was a game changer, enabling the destruction of all but the thickest armour of German tanks. After the war it was replaced by the 120 mm BAT recoilless rifle and 84 mm 20 pounder, but its legacy and cold war variants created a legacy which endures to this day.
Author's rendition of the 17-pdr

⚙ Specifications 17 Pdr/55

Dimensions13 ft 9 in (4.191 m) x 7 ft 3in x 5ft 3in (4.19 x 2.2 x 1.6m)
Mass 3050 kgs or 3 long tons
Crew5 (commander, gunner, pointer, 2 loaders)
Load/recoil Vertical sliding-breech/hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse-6° to +16.5°/60°
Rate of fire10 practical, 20 rpm cyclic
Muzzle velocity2,900 ft/s HE, 3,950 ft/s APDS
Range 1.5 km (0.93 mi), up to 10.5 km (6.5 mi)
Shell Fixed QF 76.2×583mmR (R/135mm), 7 types

British antitank guns ww2 British Ordnance QF 2-pounder

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1936 to 1944, 12,000

The 2-pounder (2-pdr) anti-tank gun was a British-designed weapon used during World War II to counter German tanks. It was one of the primary anti-tank guns used by the British army during the early stages of the war, before it was gradually replaced by more powerful weapons.

The 2-pdr gun had a caliber of 40 mm and a maximum range of 1,400 meters. It was initially designed as a mobile weapon that could be easily transported and set up by a small crew, and it proved to be effective against the early German tanks such as the Panzer III and IV.

However, as the war progressed and the Germans developed more heavily armored tanks, the 2-pdr gun became less effective. The British responded by developing larger and more powerful anti-tank guns such as the 6-pdr and the 17-pdr.

Despite its limitations, the 2-pdr gun remained in service throughout the war and was used in a variety of roles, including as an anti-tank gun, an anti-aircraft gun, and a coastal defense weapon.
Author's rendition of the 2-pdr

⚙ Specifications 2 Pdr/50

Dimensions2.08 m (6 ft 10 in) L/52 bore 2 m (6 ft 7 in) L/50
Mass 814 kg (1,795 lb)
Crew3-5 (commander, gunner, pointer, 2 extras)
Load/recoilBreech-loaded Semi-automatic vertical sliding-block, Hydro-spring
Elevation/traverseElevation -13° to +15°, Traverse 360°
Rate of fire22 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity792 m/s (2,600 ft/s) with AP shot
Range 1,500 yd (1,400 m)/Maximum 1,800 yd (1,600 m)
Shell 40×304mmR 40 mm (1.575 in)
Carriage/sights three-leg platform, Sights No.24b

British antitank guns ww2 3-inches gun M5

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1943 to 1945, 2,500

The 3-inch Gun M5 was an anti-tank gun used by the United States during World War II. It was an improvement over the earlier 3-inch Gun M3, with a longer barrel and higher muzzle velocity, giving it improved anti-tank capabilities.

The M5 gun had a caliber of 76.2mm and a maximum range of 12,500 yards (11.4 km). It weighed around 5,400 pounds (2,450 kg) and could fire up to 15 rounds per minute.

The M5 gun was mounted on a variety of vehicles, including the M6 heavy tank destroyer and the M10 tank destroyer, and saw service in both the European and Pacific theaters of the war. It was effective against most German tanks, including the Panther and Tiger, and was also used as an artillery piece for indirect fire support.

After World War II, the M5 gun remained in service with the US military and was also supplied to various allied countries. It saw action in the Korean War and was finally phased out of service in the 1950s.

Author's rendition of the 3-in M5

⚙ Specifications 3-inches gun M5

Dimensions3.4 m (11 ft 2 in) x 2.2 m (7 ft 3 in) x 1.62 m (5 ft 4 in)
Mass 2,210 kg (4,872 lbs)
Crew9 (commander, gunner, pointer, 6 loaders)
Load/recoilHorizontal-block Hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse−5° to +30°, 45°
Rate of fire12 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity792 m/s (2,600 ft/s) with AP/APCBC rounds
Range 14.7 km (9.13 mi)
Shell 76.2 × 585 mmR 3 in (76.2 mm)
Carriage/sights7.1 m (23 ft 4 in) Split trail

us guns37mm gun M3 on carriage M4

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1940 to 1943, 18,702

The 37mm M1 Anti-Tank Gun was an anti-tank weapon used by the United States during World War II. It was designed to be a lightweight, mobile weapon that could be easily transported by a small crew.

The M1 gun had a caliber of 37mm and a maximum range of around 4,500 yards (4.1 km). It weighed around 500 pounds (227 kg) and could fire up to 20 rounds per minute.

The M1 gun was used in the early stages of World War II, and was effective against light and medium German tanks such as the Panzer II and III. However, it quickly became obsolete as the Germans developed more heavily armored tanks.

The M1 gun was replaced by larger and more powerful anti-tank guns such as the 57mm M1 and the 75mm M3. However, it continued to be used in other roles, such as an infantry support weapon and an anti-aircraft gun.

Overall, the M1 gun was an important weapon in the early stages of the war, but was eventually replaced by more powerful weapons as the conflict progressed.

Author's rendition of the 3-in M5

⚙ Specifications 37 mm M1 AT Gun

Dimensions3.92 m (12 ft 10.3 in) x 1.61 m (5 ft 3.4 in) x 0.96 m (3 ft 1.8 in)
Mass 414 kg (912 lb)
Crew4-6 (commander, gunner, pointer, 1-3 loaders)
Load/recoilVertical sliding-block, Hydro-spring
Elevation/traverse-10° to +15°, 60°
Rate of fire25 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity884 m/s (2,900 ft/s)
Range 6.9 km (4.29 mi)
Shell 37×223 mm. R 37 mm (1.45 inch)
Carriage/sightsSplit trail, Telescopic M6 sight

us guns57mm Gun M1

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1942, 15,600+*

The idea of manufacturing the British Ordnance Quick-Firing 6-pounder 7 cwt (designed in 1940 to replace the 2-pdr QF AT gun) in the US, was expressed by Ordnance in February 1941. At the time, the 37mm Gun M3 was still favored and lend lease was envisioned. In the US, the gun was started in production in 1941 () as "substitute standard, 57 mm Gun M1" as a copy of the 6-pounder Mark 2 of which two were received from the UK in 1941. It had a longer barrel from the start. Combined allied production started in 1941 (201), 1942 (17,854), 1943 (16,586) and 1944 (1,964) and terminated for the QF-17 Pdr, the 1944 and 1945 ones going largely into lend-lease. The US variant was unmodified, but the M1A1 US combat tyres and wheels, and its own production started early in 1942 and went on until 1945 for a grand total of 15,637.

The M1A2 had free traverse, allowing the crew pushing and pulling on the breech and production started from September 1942. It became standard issue in the Spring of 1943 with a modified towing point design intoduced on the M1A3, which became the proper US variant, the earlier being sent in lend-lease. Later appeared the M2 in 1944 which had a caster wheel added to the right trail as well as relocated trail handles and new utility box while the 1945 M2A1 had improved elevation gear.
M1 57 mm
Author's rendition of the 57mm M1
M1 57 mm
57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T48 in Normandy June 1944
M1 57 mm
57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T48
57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T49
57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T44

Tractors were the Dodge WC-63 1½-Ton 6×6 and M2 Half-Track, but self-propelled guns also used it: The 57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T48 (lend-lease Soviet SU-57) as well as the prototype Light Tank T7E2 (1 teste), T18E2 Boarhound armored car (30 built), 57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T49 (1 tested) and 57 mm Gun Motor Carriage T44, based on Ford 4×4 ¾ ton cargo carrier chassis (same). 3/4 of the American production went to the Divisions in Europe and the remainder in lend-lease too the UK, the Soviet Union, and later Free French forces (June 1944). They only were provided AP shot and HE only in the later summer of 1944, with UK stocks as interim. It was declared obsolete in 1954, being unable to pierce the frontal armor of the T-54.

⚙ Specifications M1 AT Gun

Barrel9 ft 3 in (2.82 m)/50, cal. 2.244 in (57 mm)
Dimensions5 ft 11 in (1.8 m) x 4 ft 2 in (1.28 m)
Mass2,679 lb (1,215 kg)
Crew6: Cdr, 2 gunners, 3 loaders
Load/recoilVertical sliding-block, Hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse-5° to +15°, 90°
Rate of fire15 rpm
Muzzle velocityAP Shot M70 (2.85 kg): 853 m/s (2,800 ft/s)
Range Effective/Max1,650 yd (1,510 m)/5,000 yd (4,600 m)
ShellFixed QF 57×441 mmR
Carriage/sightsSplit trail, No.22c

swedish guns37mm Bofors AT gun

➾ Swedish Antitank gun produced from 1935, c300 built

If the 40 mm Bofors is an absolutely legendary gun, used from the 1930s to this day, found in planes, tanks, and ships all around the world, it is less obvious that the company also produced a remarkable 37 mm antitank gun. It originated in a 1921 prototype for trials, using Krupp designs, and it was also tested in 37mm, 47mm, 75mm until the project was shelved. In 1931 however the Royal Swedish Arms Commission issued a directive for a 37mm anti-tank gun (the standard caliber at the time) specifying a 700g shell fired at at 800 m/s in muzzle velocity. Bofors calculated a 800 kg ensemble, which was later rejected by Swedish Arms Chief of Ordnance Harald Jentzen. Instead he proposed a new perforated muzzle brake, which gave birth to a new prototype in 1932, with many other modifications, now down to 370 kg. It must be precised that the gun was basically horse or vehicle drawn but needed to be moved around by its gun crew. When completed it was compared to the QF 2 Pounder AT gun.
40mm Bofors
Author's rendition of the 37mm Bofors AT gun Given the largely successful reputation of Bofors at the time, it sold well: To the Netherlands (12 in 1935), some used on the M39 Pantzerwagen, and the license was acquired with more delivered to Poland, Finland, Britain, and Denmark. In Sweden it was adopted on the Landsverk L180s and L181. Some were also adopted on Panzer Is, T-26s and CV.33s during the Spanish Civil war. The tank gun version was adopted as the wz.37 by the Polish, placed on the 7TP JW, 9TP and 10TP prototypes. But it was most successful in he Finnish army, adopted as standard in 1938, with 98 in provision when USSR invaded, 124 delivered later. They claimed dozens of T-26s and BTs. Denmark had the 37mm Fodfolkskanon m1937 and in April 1940 a single one disabled 3 panzers before the crew was incapacitated. The captured ones ended in the Romanian army. Sweden also used the gun on its tanks, a the 37 mm Kanon m/38 Stridsvagn, for the L-60S\III, S\V light tanks and Stridsvagn m/41. As for perfs, vs. 60° plate it could defeat 40 mm at 300m, 33mm at 500m, 18mm at 1,000m were noted by the Finns. It was also used in 1941-42 in the desert, mounted as portee on the 30 cwt Chevrolet WB.

⚙ Specifications 37mm Bofors AT Gun

DimensionsBarrel 45 Cal. 1 736 mm, height 1 030 mm, width 1 090 mm
Mass370 kg
Crew3-4: Cdr, pointer, loader(s)
Load/recoilRotating breech block, unknown
Elevation/traverse– 10°/+ 25° and 26°
Rate of firemax 30 r.p.m., 12 practical
Muzzle velocity830 m/s
Range4.5 km
Carriage/sights2 leggeded, wheeled, shielded

Germany ww24.7 cm Pak 38(t)

➾ Antitank gun produced in Czechoslovakia 1938-40 c1,500

The 4.7 cm KPÚV vz. 38 is the original name of this ordnance standard antitank gun of the Czech Army, when the country was taken over hy Hitler's army. Originally the "kanón proti útočné vozbě vzor 38" it was produced by the Škoda Works and some were sold to Yugoslavia. Stocks were appropriated by the Germans after the occupation in 1939, pressed into service as the 4.7 cm PaK (t) or PaK 38(t). Production went on for some time under German supervision. It was notably mounted the Panzerjäger I tank destroyer and a few were also mounted on converted Renault R-35 tanks. The barrel could swing 180°, laying flat over the trails for transport, while the latter could be also folded inward to reduce volume, making it very handy to carry on an average truck. It had a small gun shield, wooden-spoked wheels but its performances were way superior to to the standard German 37mm PAK 36. It was versatile too, using AP rounds against tanks and HE rounds againt infantry. It could notably defeat 87 mm (3.4 in) of armour in ambush, at 100 m (110 yd) down to 39 mm (1.5 in) at 1,500 m (1,600 yd). For that reason they were still in used during Operation Barbarossa and probably until 1944. The remainder were passed to the Romanian Army. Those captured after the invasion of Yugolavia were also probably passed on to the Croats.
4.7 cm Pak 38(t)
Author's rendition of the 47cm PAK 38(t)

⚙ Specifications 4.7 cm Pak 38(t)

Dimensions2.04 m (6 ft 8 in) L/43, 47 mm (1.85 in)
Mass 590 kg (1,300 lbs)
Elevation/traverse-8° to +26°, traverse 50°
Rate of fire
Muzzle velocity775 m/s (2,542 ft/s)
Range4,000 m (4,375 yds)
ShellFixed QF 47×405 mm R 1.6 kg (3 lb 8 oz)
Carriage/sightsSplit trail, simple scope

Germany WW24,2 cm Pak 41

➾ Antitank gun produced from Dec.1941, 313

The 4.2 cm Pak 41 (Panzerabwehrkanone 41) was a light anti-tank gun destined to the Fallschirmjager (German airborne units) in World War II, externally similar to the 3.7 cm Pak 36, but with a modified carriage, and using the squeeze bore principle ("Gerlich" after Hermann Gerlich which invented it in 1920s) to boost velocity, and so the bore was ported to 42 mm (1.7 in) at the chamber, tapered down to only 28 mm (1.1 in) at the muzzle. The the projectile was smaller than the 37mm but had greater velocity at 1500 m/sec.. It was most efficient with the Armor-piercing composite non–rigid (APCNR–T) Pzgr 41 weighting 336 g (11.9 oz) caliber 42/28 mm (1.65/1.10 in). At 1000m they were still able to penetrate 55-60 mm, up to 83-105 mm at 250m. Production was terminated in June 1942, 313 guns being delivered. They were quickly spent. By November 1943, only 47 remained in service.

Author's rendition of the 4,2 cm Pak 41

⚙ Specifications Pak 41 AT Gun

Dimensions 235 cm (93 in), barrel 225 cm (89 in) bore, 55.8 cal.
Mass 560 kg (1,230 lb)
Load/recoilHorizontal sliding-block breech
Elevation/traverse-8° to +25°, 60°
Rate of fire12 round per minute
Muzzle velocity1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s)
Range800 m (2,600 ft) to 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
ShellFixed QF 42×406mm R
Carriage/sightsSplit trail, Zeiss optic

german AT guns7.5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 40

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1940, 23,303
The 7.5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 40 or "PAK 40" for short, was the main antitank gun of the Wehrmacht after the western campaign. It arrived just in time for the eastern front and remained widespread in all units until 1945, with some 23,000 built, also largely distributed among axis partners like Finland, Romania, Huganry and Bulgaria. In 1940 it was recoignised the 3.7 cm "door-knocker" was inadequate against the heavy armour of many French tanks of the british Matilda. It appeared obvious that its designated replacement, the 5 cm Pak 38 still testing, would not even be sufficient, so already during early development it was asked to Krupp and Rheinmetall to develop in emergency a 7.5 cm variant of the same. Notably instead of extensive use of light alloys, it reverted to steel and dispensed of many costly and sophisticated systems for a more rugged design. Still, each unit cost was 12,000 RM.

As a result, the new antitank gun received a new emergency after the invasion of the USSR in 1941 and reports of encounters with the T-34 and KV-1. It received the utmost priority, and by November 1941 the first preserie guns were sent to the eastern front, then by April 1942, the first batches of serial guns arrived (44) with the production rapidly ramping up until mid-1943 when the Pak 40 formed the bulk of German anti-tank artillery. It was recoignised as efficient, with a fast rate of fire, optional high elevation for indirect fire, and best results obtained by the Panzergranate 40 (PzGr. 40) APCR projectile (sub-calibre tungsten core): 4.05 kg (8 lb 15 oz) for 990 m/s in muzzle velocity, the ability to defeat 143 mm of armour at 100m, 120 mm at 500, 97 mm at 1000m and 77 mm at 1500. At 500m the PzGr. 40 could defeat 154 mm armour plating at 90°, so frontally a KV-1 heavy tank.

7.5cm PAK-40
Author's rendition of the 7.5cm PAK-40

⚙ Specifications 75mm Pak-40 AT Gun

Dimensions6.2(20 ft 4) in x 2.08 x 1.2 m, barrel 46 cal. 3.45 m (11 ft 4 in)
Mass1,425 kg (3,142 lb)
Crew6 (Cdr, 2 pointers, 4 loaders)
Load/recoilSemi-automatic horizontal sliding-block, Hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse−5° to +22°; 65°
Rate of fire14 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocitySee notes
Range1,800 m (1,969 yd) to 7,678 m (8,397 yd) (HE)
ShellFixed QF 75×714mm R
Carriage/sightsSplit trail, Zeiss optics

german guns88mm FLAK

➾ Antitank gun produced 1936-1945, 21,310
Certainly seen as the ultimate "wunderwaffe", the "88" was as famous as the French "75" in WW1, for the second world war. Certainly the iconic piece of ordnance for ages, this gun had a long history prior to its use as anti-aircraft variant. Previous variants were in use as light dual purpose gun in the Kaiserliches Marine since the start of the century. The 88 mm/28 developed by Krupp became the staple of light artillery on all ships from battleships to destroyers. Far forwards and in the interwar a new generation of such guns were developed by Krupp, wich design started in 1928.

It's in 1933 that started the production of a new generation FLAK gun, successively declined in longer barrels though its iterations Flak 18/36/37/41. When WW2 started the Wehmacht integrated AA bataillons equipped with the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36 in towed from hy half tracks, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. This "Flugabwehrkanone" had a versatile 4-wheeled carriage which allowed this piece to be used in limited anti-tank mode if needed, and revealed itself lethal in this role. This started in the campaign of may-June 1940 with its success during the British attack at Amiens, and given its potential it was not ony soon placed on all osrts of self-propelled carriages, with tan hunters developed around it like the "Nashorn" but after some development time, a heavy tank was built around, the famous Tiger I. Rheinmetall later created the 8.8 cm Flak 41, and Krupp and even longer barrel 8.8 cm gun, further developed as an anti-tank and tank destroyer as the PaK 43 gun (Elefant and Jagdpanther, Tiger II).

Author's rendition of the xxx

⚙ Specifications 8,8cm FLAK 36 Gun

Dimensions5.791 m (20 ft) (barrel 4.938 m), width 2.3 m, height 2.10 m
Mass7,407 kg (16,330 lb) in mounted position
Load/recoilHorizontal semi-automatic sliding bloc, Hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse−3° to +85° 360°
Rate of fire15–20 rpm
Muzzle velocity840 m/s (2,690 ft/s)
Range14,860 m (16,250 yd) ground target
ShellFixed QF 88×571mmR, 88 mm (3.46 in)
Carriage/sightsSonderanhänger 202, ZF.20 sight

us guns7.5 cm PAK 97/38

➾ 1942 Antitank gun, 3712 converted

The 7.5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 97/38 and 7,5 cm Panzerjägerkanone 97/38 were German anti-tank guns combining captured French Canon de 75 modèle 1897, Swiss Solothurn muzzle brake and 5 cm Pak 38 carriage. It reused thousands of these WWI vintage guns and could fire French and Polish ammunition. It was moderately appreciated, with pros and cons. On pros, its light weight, good mobility, sufficient anti-armor performance with HEAT shell, defeating a T-34s in most situations and KV series sides, so decent anti-tank performances. On cons, its obvious low muzzle velocity. It was a 1897 field gun after all, brillant at its time for its high rate of fire, but never intended to deal with armour. This balanced by the HEAT ammunition, but it was really unable to cause much damage with a AP shell, especially on a small mobile target. Another on was its low effective range (500 m even with HEAT !). And there was its violent recoil, always a hazard.

Author's rendition of the 7.5 cm PAK 97/38 On the pros still, there was its low price compared to other German ordnance of the time: 9,000 reichsmarks, compared to 12,000 for the Pak 40. 2,854 were delivered in 1942, 858 in 1943, 160 were mounted on the 7.5 cm Pak 40 carriage (Pak 97/40) built in 1943, until production was stopped. Not only because of better Russian antitank guns captured in sufficient numbers and domestic production reaching a peak. For shells, 37,800 HEAT were made in 1942 and 371,600 in 1943. The Pak 97/38 entered service by the summer of 1942 and remained so until 1945, by March it is estimated 145 Pak 97/38 and FK 231(f) were still available, albeit 14 frontline only.

Ten were experimentally on captured T-26 light tank chassis, the 7.5 cm Pak 97/38(f) auf Pz.740(r), used with the 3rd Company, 563rd Anti-Tank Battalion until March 1944. It was also largely distributed to the other axis members: The Finnish Army during the Continuation War had a stock of 75 mm field guns in 1940, and they were later rebuillt to the Pak 97/38 standards. 46 converted in March–June 1943, 7 lost, the others retired only in 1986. They managed to manufacture their own shells as well. A few were also given to the Romanian 3rd and 4th Armies by October 1942. It was also fiven to 9 divisions of the Italian 8th Army (each had a battery of six assigned to artillery regiments in 1942), where it was locally designated Cannone da 75/39. November 1942 saw it in the hands of the Hungarian 2nd Army fielded also.

⚙ Specifications 7.5 cm PAK 97/38 AT Gun

Dimensions4.65 x 1.85 x 1.05m (15 ft 3 in x 6 ft 1 in x 3 ft 5 in) L/34.5
Mass cbt 1,190 kg (2,623 lbs); trv 1,270 kg (2,800 lbs)
Crew4-5: Gunner, Cdr, 2-3 loaders
Breech/recoilNordenfelt interrupted screw, Hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse-10° to 18°; 60°
Rate of fire10-14 rpm
Muzzle velocity570 m/s (1,900 ft/s)
RangeHEAT 1.5 km (0.93 mi), HE frag 10 km (Sprgr.236/1(f))
Shell75 mm (2.95 in) 75×350 mm R HEAT, AP, HE, Shrapnel
Carriage/sightsSplit trail

us gunsPAK-36

➾ Antitank gun produced from 1935, c20,000 built

The Pak 36 (Panzerabwehrkanone 36) was a 37mm caliber German anti-tank gun standard at the start of the Second World War. It was found virtually in all Wehrmacht Panzerjäger units, until 1942. Developed by Rheinmetall from 1933 to 1935, production made the first entering service by 1936. No less than 9,120 were available by September 1939, 5,339 more made during the war and 6,000 produced for export. At the time secret tank and weapons tests were ongoing in 1936-37 in the Kuban, the Soviets copied it as their own 45 mm anti-tank gun M1932 (19-K) but Japan also made a close copy. Not only it saw action (in Italian use) during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War but also the Spanish Civil War in the hands of Franco's troops, and the japanese at the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was of course deployed massively and used continurously until gradual replacement in 1942. It was indeed already found in the summer of 1940 unable to defeat the British Mk II Matilda, French Char B1 and Somua S35 as well as the T-34 and KV-1 on year later, being dubbed by the Germans themselves the "door knocker". But many still found use from 1942-45 with the Sielgranate 41, a shape charge projectile. It was light, easy to move, hide, and tow by any vehicles, including the small Sd.Kfz.2 moto-track. Derivatives found place on the Panzer III, which was its prime weapon in the summer of 1940. Many ended on various vehicles as tank hunters as well.

Author's rendition of the PAK-36

⚙ Specifications PAK 36 AT Gun

Dimensions1.66 m (5 ft 5 in) x 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in) x 1.17 m (3 ft 10 in)
MassTravel 450 kg (990 lb), combat 327 kg (721 lb)
Crew5 (Commander, gunner, loader, two ammunition bearers)
Elevation/traverse-5° to +25°, 30° right and left
Rate of fire13 rpm
Muzzle velocity762 m/s (2,500 ft/s)
Range5,484 m (5,997 yds)
Shell37×249mmR 37 mm (1.45 in)

Italy ww2 Cannone da 47/32

FR ww2 Puteaux 25mm SA34

FR ww2 Puteaux 47mm SA37

FR ww2 Hotchkiss 20mm

FR ww2 Bohler 4,7cm AT

ZIS-2 76 mm antitank gun
Soviet ww2 ZIS-2 76 mm antitank gun

76 mm divisional gun M1939 USV
Soviet ww2 45 mm antitank gun M1927

45 mm antitank gun M1942
Soviet ww2 45 mm antitank gun M1942

jap ww2 37 mm Type 94 IJA antitank gun

Mauser TankGewehr 1918
Mauser TankGewehr 1918

AA - Dual Purpose guns

37 cm FLAK
Germany ww2 3.7 cm FLAK

40 mm Bofors Mark 2
UK ww2 40 mm Bofors Mark 2

Germany ww2 Flakvierling

37mm M1937 AA

20 mm Hotchkiss AA

2cm FLAK 38

Vickers 3-in M1931

Italy ww2 Cannone da 20/65 M35


Germany ww2 15 cm sFH 18

➾ Howitzer produced 1933–1945 to 6,756

The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 18 (sFH 18) was nicknamed Immergrün ("Evergreen"), well known as the basic organic German division heavy howitzer during the Second World War. It served alongside the medium 10.5 cm leFH 18. It was praised by its mobility, firing range and effectiveness of its 44 kgs shell, replacing the WWI vintage 15 cm sFH 13 judged by Krupp-Rheinmetall completely inadequate.

50% heavier than its predecessor with a 40% greater muzzle velocity, 4.5 kilometers greater range and innovative split-trail gun carriage it was developed in secret from 1926 to 1930 and approved for production in 1933.

It was also the world's first gun operating a rocket-assisted ammunition for better range. The sFH 18 was produced by Krupp, Rheinmetall, Spreewerke, M.A.N. and Skoda, and used notably on the Panzerhaubitze 18/1 "Hummel". Although it only used the 43.52 kg (95.9 lb) HE shell, a lucky hit from above of that magnitude was always fatal for any tank. It was generally towed by the Sd.Kfz.7 or Sd.Kfz.8.

Author's rendition of the sFH 18 15 cm Howitzer

⚙ Specifications 15 cm sFH 18 L/29.5

Dimensions7.849 (barrel 4.440) x 2.225 x 1.707 m
Weight Travel: 6,304 kg, Combat: 5,512 kg
Crew7 (commander, gunner, 2 pointers, 3 loaders)
Load/recoil Horizontal sliding-block/hydro-pneumatic
Elevation/traverse0° to +45°/60°
Rate of fire4 rpm
Muzzle velocity520 m/s (1,700 ft/s)
Range13,325 m (14,572 yd) - assisted 18,200 m (19,900 yd)
Shell149 mm × 260 R SLCC, weight 43.52 kg (HE)

Germany ww2 10.5 cm leFH-18 Howitzer

➾ Howitzer produced 1933–1945 to 11,848

The 10.5 cm leFH 18 (leichte Feldhaubitze, or "light field howitzer" 4.13 in) was a German standard in World War II in service from 1935 and used by all divisions and artillery battalions. 11,848 were produced and 10,265 of the modernized leFH 18/40 variant. It was the successor of the 10.5 cm leFH 16 and a better range and slightl increased rate of fire, better optics, and modern split trail gun carriage more stability and traverse, but this made it too heavy for horse-drawn artillery battalions. Because of the shortae of vehicles of the eastern front it was often bogged down in mud and snow.

The leFH 18 was developed as the leFH 18M and leFH 18/40 and in 1942 existed in self-propelled versions, one the Panzer II, H35, Char B1 or 37L chassis. It was also well distributed withing the axis nations: Bumgaria, Romania, Hungary, Spain, Finland, Slovakia used it. The first model was also exported to China, and some were found in the North Korean army. Sweden purchased the licence, Potugal obtained surplus after the war, deployed in Africa until the 1970s. It was also used by Norway post-war. It was generally towed by the Sd.Kfz.6 or Sd.Kfz.11 prime movers when available.
10.5 cm leFH-18 Howitzer
Author's rendition of the sFH 18/40 10.5 cm Howitzer

⚙ Specifications 10.5 cm sFH 18 L/29.5

Dimensions6.10 x 1.97 x 1.88 m total, Barrel 2.941 m (9 ft 8 in), 28 calibers
WeightTravel 3,490 kg, Combat 1,985 kg, split trail
SightModel 34 Sighting Mechanism
breechhorizontal sliding-block
Elevation/traverse-5° to +42°; 56°
Rate of fire/Muzzle velocity6-8 rpm; 470 m/s (1,500 ft/s)
Range10,675 m (11,674 yd)
Shell14.81 kg cased separate-loading (6 charges) 105 x 155mm R 1.845 kg (4.07 lb) TNT

Germany ww2 17 cm Kanone 18

21 cm Morser 18
Germany ww2 21 cm Morser 18

Germany ww2 7,5 cm LeIG-18

Nebelwerfer 21 cm
Germany ww2 Nebelwerfer 28 cm

Nebelwerfer 21 cm
Germany ww2 Nebelwerfer 21 cm

Nebelwerfer 15 cm
Germany ww2 Nebelwerfer 15 cm

Soviet ww2 ZIS-3 76 mm divisional field gun M1942

152mm ML20 Howitzer
Soviet ww2 152mm ML20 Howitzer

122mm D20 Howitzer
Soviet ww2 122mm D20 Howitzer

122mm D-74
Soviet ww2 122mm D-74

122mm Howitzer 2A18 D30
Soviet ww2 122mm Howitzer 2A18 D30

Soviet ww2 122mm M30 Howitzer(R)

130mm M1954 Howitzer
Soviet ww2 130mm M1954 Howitzer

Soviet ww2 76 mm divisional gun M1939 USV

76.2 mm mountain gun M1938
Soviet ww2 76.2 mm mountain gun M1938

45 mm antitank gun M1927
Soviet ww2 76.2 mm field gun M1937

203 mm field gun B4
Soviet ww2 203 mm field gun (tracked) B3

FH77 Howitzer
155mm Haubits FH77/A Howitzer (1978)

240 mm Howitzer M1
US ww2 240 mm Howitzer M1

25 pdr howitzer 88 mm
UK ww2 25 pdr howitzer 88 mm

UK ww2 5.5 in BL Howitzer

UK ww2 BL 7.2in Howitzer

US ww2 75mm Pack Howitzer M1

US ww2 8-in Howitzer M1

105 mm M2
US ww2 105 mm Howitzer M2

155 mm M1950
fr ww2 155 mm GIAT Howitzer M1950

75 mm M1897
fr ww2 75 mm SchneiderM1897

105 mm M1913
fr ww2 105 mm Schneider M1915

jap ww2 75 mm IJA Type 94 Field gun

Italy ww2 Cannone da 75/18 M34

Italy ww2 Cannone da 75/27 M11

Italy ww2 Cannone da 75/32 M37

Italy ww2 Cannone da 149/40

Italy ww2 Obice da 210/22 M35

czech ww2 149 mm Skoda Field Howitzer M1915

czech ww2 10 cm Skoda Field Gun Vz19

czech ww2 10 mm Skoda Field Howitzer Vz14

czech ww2 10,4 cm Feld Kanone M15

Antitank Missiles:

  • Australian Malkara
  • Argentina: Mathogo
  • Belarus: Shershen
  • Brazil: MSS-1.2 * FOG-MPM * ALAC
  • Canada: ERYX
  • China: CM-501G * AFT-10 * PA02-MA * PA01-GA * TS-01 * HJ-73 * HJ-8 * HJ-9 * CM-502KG * HJ-11 * HJ-10 * BA-9 * BA-7 * AR-1 * AKD-10 * Type 98 anti-tank rocket * Type 78/65 * AFT-10 * HJ-12
  • Croatia: AT-4
  • France: APILAS * Entac * ERYX * SS.10 * SS.11 * MILAN * MMP
  • Germany: Cobra/Cobra 2000 * Mamba * HOT * PARS 3
  • Hungary: 44M HU
  • India: DRDO ATM * Amogha * Nag * MPATGM * VEM Jasmine
  • Indonesia: Saxhorn-2/Metis-M
  • Iran: RAAD * Tosan * Dehlavie * Saeghe * Toophan
  • Israel: Orev * MAPATS * LAHAT * Spike * Nimrod
  • Italy: Mosquito
  • Japan: Type 64 MAT * Type 79 Jyu-MAT * Type 87 Chu-MAT * Type 96 MPMS * Type 01 LMAT
  • Jordan: Terminator
  • North Korea: Bulsae-1 * Bulsae-2 * Bulsae-3
  • South Korea: Hyungung (Raybolt)
  • Pakistan: Baktar Shikan
  • Poland: Pirat (ATGM)
  • Serbia: Bumbar * ALAS
  • South Africa: ZT3 Ingwe * Mokopa
  • USSR/Russia: Drakon (IT-1) * Taifun * 3M6 Shmel (AT-1 Snapper) * 3M11 Falanga (AT-2 Swatter) * 9M14 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger) * 9M111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot) * 9M112 Kobra (AT-8 Songster) * 9M113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel) * 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) * 9K115 Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn) * 9K115-2 Metis-M (AT-13 Saxhorn-2) * 9K116-1 Bastion (AT-10 Stabber) * 9K118 Sheksna (AT-12 Swinger) * 9M119 Svir * 9M119M Refleks (AT-11 Sniper) * 9M120 Ataka (AT-9 Spiral-2) * 9K121 Vikhr (AT-16 Scallion) * 9M123 Khrizantema (AT-15 Springer) * 9M133 Kornet (AT-14 Spriggan) * 9M133M Kornet-M * Hermes-A
  • Sweden: Bantam * RBS 56 BILL * RBS 56B BILL 2 * MBT LAW
  • Switzerland: Cobra
  • Turkey: Cirit * Mızrak-O * UMTAS * Karaok manpad
  • United Kingdom: Malkara * Red Planet * Swingfire * Brimstone * Vickers Vigilant * MBT LAW
  • United States: M47 Dragon * Javelin * SRAW BGM-71 TOW * AGM-114 Hellfire
  • Ukraine: RK-3 Corsar * Skif (ATGM)


Blast type Antitank Mines:

AC NM AE T1, ADWAT, AT-8 (Cuba), ATM-72/74/75/96, BLU-91, C-3-A/B, Cardoen AT, CC 48/42/2-42/3, DM-11, Flachmine, FMK-3/5, Hawkins grenade, LPZ, M/47, M1/M1A1, M4, M5, M6, M7, M15, M19, M51/52 MACI, M/71, M75, M/80, M453, M1935/1936, MAT/5/6, MAT-62B/76/84-F5, MATS/1.4, MATS/2, MATS/2.6, MGP-31, MI AC PR, Mk 2/3/4/5/7, MKT Mod 72, MKTBT, Model 41-47/47-52/67, Model 1948, MP-APVL 83-F4, MPP-B Wierzba, Na-Mi-Ba, No 6/8/25/26, NV-41, P2/P3 Mk2, Panssarimiina m/36/39/40/44, Pappmine, PDM-1/1M/2/2M/6, Pignone P-1/2, PM-60 mine (K-1), PMZ-40, PRB M3, PRB-111, PT-56, PT Mi-Ba, PT Mi-Ba-II, PT Mi-Ba-III, PP Mi-D, PT Mi-K, PTM-80P, SACI, SB-81, SBP-04/07, SH-55, T-IV, T-AB-1, TC/2.4/3.6/6, Tellermine 29/35/42/43, TM-46, TMM-1, TMA-1/2/3/4/5, TMB-1/2, TMN-46, TMSB, TM-35/38/41/44/46/57/62/65, TMD-1/2/40/44, TMD-B, TMM-1, Topfmine A/B/C, TQ-Mi, Type I bakelite, Type 2 AT, Type II bakelite, Type 3 mine, Type 9 wooden ATM, Type 63/72/93/96/99, Volcano mine system, VS-1.6/2.2/3.6, VS-AT4, YaM-5 box mine, YM-II/III mine.

Shaped charge/Misznay Schardin effect Antitank Mines:

Adrushy, ARGES, AT2, ATM 6/7/2000E, BAT/7, FFV 016/028, HAK-1, Hohl-Sprung, HPD-1/2/3, K441/442, Kasia 100/170, L14A1, KB-PTM, KRIZNA-D, M21/24, MC-71, MIACAH F1, MI AC Disp F1 Minotaur, MIFF, Mine Anti-Tank Non-detectable 1A/3A, MN-111/121/123, MPB, MSM MK2, MUSA/MUSPA, No 8 mine, Panzer stab 43, PARM 1/2, PD Mi-PK, PT Mi-D1, PT Mi-P, PT Mi-U, PTM-3, Pz Mi 88, SATM, SB-MV/1, SLAM, T-93, TM-72/83/89, TMK-2, TMRP-7, Type 84, UKA-63, VS-HCT/2/4, VS-SATM1 mine.

Full-width Antitank Mines:

Barmine, BAT/7, FFV 028 (Stridsvagnsmina 6), MSM MK2, Riegel mine 43, Riegel mine 44, V-3 (N5) mine, VS-HCT/HCT2/HCT4 mine.

Side-attack Antitank Mines:

Addermine, Anti-Transport, ARGES/MACPED, ATIS, ATM 6, ATM 7, AVC 100, AVC 195, FFV 018, L14A1, Kasia 100/170/200, M24, MON-100/200, MPB, PARM 1/2, PD Mi-PK, PMN-150/250, TEMP 30, TM-83, wide area M93 HORNET mine.