BMP-1M Kliver

Russia (1997)- 2 built
The BMP-1M "Kliver" is the modernized version of the BMP-1 fitted with 2x3 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers at the rear of the TKB-799 "Kliver" one-man turret. The designation "M" was never official, only used by NATO. To confuse things, the Ukrainians developed also a vehicle called by NATO BMP-1M but it was later redesignated BMP-1U "Shkval". This one was produced in larger numbers and declined into many sub-variants for export (post in preparation). So far, only two prototypes were built and marketed for export back in 1997-99 and then forgotten.

The BMP-1 upgrades in short

The Kliver TKB-799 turret and turret basket

BMP-1 upgrades

The idea of modernizing large stocks of BMP-1s in the 1990s was tempting as these vehicles, now considered obsolete, were all retired. This was attempt of modernization which could be ported on all vehicles in park should a war broke out, or exported as an upgrade package for foreing users of the BMP-1. Alongside the BMP-1M were tested the following:
BMP-1 "Razbezhka" (turret from the BMD-2, 30 mm autocannon, from Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant 1998. Design stage only.
BMP-1-30. BMD-2 turret (30 mm 2A42 autocannon) and UTD-230 diesel, 13.8 tonnes 70 kph. One proto tested in 1997.
BMP-1 OWS-25R. 1998 Version, fitted with the Israeli one-man Overhead Weapon Station (OWSD) with a 25 mm Oerlikon KBA, 2x ATGM, 7.62 mm coax, six smoke grenade launchers.
BMP-1 "Bakhcha-U" WS from Tula Instrument Engineering Design Bureau, 2000s proto with the same BMP-3 100 mm 2A70 gun/missile launcher, coax. 30 mm 2A72 autocannon, 7.62 mm PKTM.
BMP-1AM Basurmanin, developed by Uralvagonzavod (UVZ) fitted with the BTR-80A turret and 2A72 30 mm autocannon, PKTM 7.62 mm, smoke grenade launchers Tucha, TKN-4GA sight. Approved in 2018, Upgrade actually chosen. So far 37 were ordered. See on Tank Encyclopedia.
BMP-1 M1979/1 (Ob'yekt 765Sp8) (NATO BMP-1G) prototype armed with a 30 mm AGS-17 "Plamya" automatic grenade launcher.

The BMP-1M in brief

The BMP-1M was developed by the late 1990s by KBP (Tula Instrument Engineering Design Bureau) and said to increase the vehicle's combat efficiency by 5–7 times. It was the same chassis, fitted with the TKB-799 "Kliver" one-man weapons station plus missile pod. The centerpiece was a 30 mm 2A72 dual purpose autocannon plus coaxial 7.62 mm PKTM coaxial machine gun.

The missile pod is located on the right side, holding four 9M133 Kornet (AT-14 Spriggan) or 9M133F "Kornet" ATGMs fitted with a laser jam-resistant fire control system. In alternatove the pod could be replace to hold 9K38 Igla (SA-18 Grouse) surface-to-air missiles instead converting the vehicle into a potential SPAAML. There are 300 rounds in belt for the main gun, and 2000 rounds for the light machine gun. The four tubed 4 ATGMs needed to be externally replaced.

The BMP-1 "kliver" has a modern computerized fire control system 2 plane stabilized and provided a 1K13-2 telescopic sight for measurement/thermal/laser channels, plus a ballistic calculator, with external sensors. Computer simulations were annouced superior to the American M2 Bradley in efficiency, especially coming from ATGM tests, with a greater effective range and accuracy while on the move of the autocannon in day and night. The Russian authorities claimed the BMP-1M won virtual engagements with the M2 Bradley at 1.3 times rate. The first BMP-1M was tested at the AFV Research Institute in Kubinka in 1998. Note that the name "BMP-1M" was never publicly recoignised, it was a commodity name by NATO. In the end, two BMP-1Ms were shown at IDEX'99 International Exhibition, in Abu Dhabi. It was offered on the export market as well.

Related links russian tracked apcs
On on the Kliver turret 9M133-1 Kornet-E AT-14


Dimensions (L-w-h)6.735 x 3.150m x ?
Total weight, battle ready 14 Tons est.
Crew3 (Commander, gunner, driver), +8 troops
PropulsionUTD-20 6-cyl. 4-st. V AIWC diesel (300 hp at 2,600 rpm)
Speed (land/water)65 kph road, 7-8 kph swimming
Range (on flat)420 l tank, 550 km (road) est.
SupensionsTorsion bars
Armament30 mm 2A72 auto. (300 rds)+ 7.62 mm coax. PKTM, 4x 152mm 9K133 Kornet
ArmorTurret est. 19 mm or 1.1 inches RHA
Total production2 Prototypes


Demonstrator prototype of 1998 as presented at IDEX 97


Kliver variant at Idex 97

Kliver variant at Idex 97

Kliver variant in Russia, 2000s

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