Here, you'll be able to find previous new proposal entries on tank encyclopedia, going all the way back to January 2021. Military Truck archives, including half-tracks, are not included but you can fin them here. As a general rule, if it's not armoured, armed or not, tracked or not, it will be found in Truck Encyclopedia. If it's armoured, even originally a staff car, truck, of just improvized, it will be found on and Truck Encyclopedia englobes not only trucks and half-tracks from WWI to this day, but also military cars, artilery tractors and specialized vehicles, from supply to repair, workshops or ambulance. Some armoured vehicles are declined into these also, and so they are proper to the other sites. On the long run it is planned to cover ALL military vehicles, period.
♆ 15/05/2024
UK tanks FV721 Fox CVR
The FV721 Fox Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Wheeled) abbreviated as CVR(W)) was a 4×4 armoured car manufactured by ROF Leeds. It was dsigned for the British Army replacement of the 1950 Daimler Ferret (1951) scout car, itself a replacement for the legendary WW2 Daimler Dingo but also the ageing Saladin armoured car (1956). The Fox saw service first with B Squadron, 1st Royal Tank Regiment at Tidworth from 1975 onwards, until retired from service in 1993–94. Some 325 were made by Royal Ordnance Leeds, including 200 for the British Army and the remainder for export. It had received no true replacement in a wheeled form yet.
9K35 Strela 10
♆ 12/05/2024
soviet tanks 9K35 Strela 10
The 9K35 Strela 10 is a short-range surface-to-air missile system designed in the 1970s by USSR. Based on a versatile platform, the MT-LB tracked vehicle, it presents a low profile and its large useful internal space is used for spare missiles. Its twin-arm, paired launch canisters are visually aimed, using optical and infrared-guidance to fire the short range 9M37/37M/37MD/9M333 missile, primarily to engage low-altitude threats such as helicopters. GRAU "9K35", NATO reporting name SA-13 "Gopher". The number built are unknown. The Strela 10 saw action in multiple wars from 1979 Angola to Ukraine in 2022-24. It was declined into six variants and exported to 30 countries.
♆ 06/05/2024
german tanks Sturmhaubitze 42
The Sturmhaubitze 42 or "StuH 42" was a self-propelled gun developed in Germany during World War II and based on the StuG III F/8 and later the Ausf G. This was a conversion to the G L/28 howitzer to serve as versatile support vehicle, in service by 1942 (Leningrad) and from 1943 notably at Kursk and Kharkov. In 1942, the StuG III Ausf. F8 received a 10.5 cm (4.1 in) howitzer (Haubitze) and so was redesignated StuH 42 (Sturmhaubitze 42). Under the waffenamt designation system it was called the Sd.Kfz 142/2. from 1212 to 1311 were made depending on sources until production stopped at Alkett in February 1945. They fought in STUG brigades of the eastern front and a few saw action in Italy as well.
♆ 30/04/2024
soviet tanks BMP-1U Shkval
The BMP-1U is a 1999 upgrade (publicly revealed in 2001) of the Soviet 1960s BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle. The main effort is to replace the former turret with a much more capable KBA-105 Shkval ("squall") remote weapon system, comprising a 30 mm autocannon, two ATGMs, a coaxial light MGs, a grenade launcher and six smoke dischargers. Alas, the plan to produce 400 petered out in 2006 after being approved for production. They were sold instead to Turkmenistan and Georgia with about 12 retained in Ukrainian service. The Georgian BMP-1Us saw acion in the Russo-Georgian war, with at least three captured, one presented as an Ukrainian war prize.
♆ 27/04/2024
soviet tanks ST-26
The ST-26 was the first Soviet Bridgelayer. It was based on the famous T-26, derived from the British Vickers 6-ton tank or Mark E. Three prototypes were tested early on in 1933 and the cable laying variant was retained for a small production of c70 vehicles dubbed ST-1. However due to poor maintenance a few were really serviceable in the summer of 1941. Improved variants were not produced either, all focus placed on purely combat tanks during the war. They nevertheless gave a base to Soviet engineering teams, making possible the concept of "deep battle". Second article on the T-26 variants. Next stops: The TT-26 and SU-5.
K30 Biho
♆ 24/04/2024
soviet tanks K30 Biho SPAAG
The South Korean K30 Biho ("Flying Tiger") is a twin 30 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft vehicle (SPAAG) developed to meet operational requirements of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces which suits its operational conditions. Its guns are electro-optically by a surveillance radar system. The vehicle is mounted on a K200 chassis shared by the K-SAM Chunma and is supposed to complement the more numerous K263A1 Chungung Vulcan. 176 were delivered by Hanwha Defense from 1999. In 2013-14 it was modified with a twin tandem Shinghung SAM system in complement to its main gun, making it an hybrid solution between pure SPAAG (Guns) and SPAAML (missiles) unofficially called SPAAGML. Closest competitor is the Russian 2422 Tunguska. Based on this, the K30 Biho which entered service in this new format by 2019, competed the same year against the Tunguska and Pantsir in the Indian SPAD-GMS procurement, until cancelled for the domestic Atmanirbhar Bharat program.
♆ 22/03/2024
soviet tanks Landsverk L-10
The first Swedish Tank The Landsverk L-10 (Army stridsvagn m/31 or strv m/31) was a Swedish late interwar medium tank. It was the second attempt by AB Landsverk to produced a tank suitable for a large production which developement went from 1930 and 1933, and it was quite advanced for its time (all-welded constructio, periscopes) and featuring a rapid fire Bofors 37 mm anti-tank gun, two Browning M1917, up to 24 mm of armour. But after being tested, only three prototypes were evaluated, but production was not greenlight. At last it was a solid base to develop the next iteration, the L-30.
♆ 19/04/2024
An update and expansion, with twice as more data and 6 more illustrations of the old post on the LVTP-7, waiting to be aired on tank encyclopedia. The vehicle replaced the Vietnam era bulky LVTP-5, and was of the same generation as the Bradley and Abrams program, but intended as the main mount for the Marines (USMC). Upgrades programmes, sub-variants, planned replacement lineage.
♆ 15/04/2024
russia tanks Kamaz Typhoon
The KamAZ-6396 Typhoon is a family of Russian Modular, Armored, Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles made by the truck builder KAMAZ. It is a whole family of 6x6 vehicles under the Typhoon program. As of 2021, 330 Typhoon-K had been received. The Typhoon exist indeed in 4x4, 6x6 and 8x8 variants sharing a lot of elements, manufacturer code 5388, 6396 and 6368. This post is about the 6396 and its single cargo variant Kamaz 63968. Export customers so far are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and those captured by Ukraine. In April 2024, 28 Typhoon cargo and 9 Typhoon APC were either lost or captured in the current war in ukraine.
♆ 12/04/2024
Varta MRAP
The Ukrarmor Varta was first designed in 2015 by the young company as an entry APC to proactively answer a need from the Ukrainian National Guard. The result was a vehicle using Swedish armour, Germnan tyres and other foreign components but a Varta turbodiesel engine rated above 350 hp. Capable of carrying eight infantry, plus the driver and a gunner, the Varta was approved from production in 2016 and until 2020 some 80 were delivered to various services, 37 lost so far in the current war as of April 2024.
♆ 09/04/2024
GTK Boxer
The Gepanzertes Transport-Kraftfahrzeug Boxer (GTK) MRAV is a modern all-wheeled German multirole armoured fighting vehicle, featuring an innovative concept of rapid plugin mission modules. Partners changed during the development, and today the vehicle is produced by Munich-based ARTEC GmbH industrial group, after a development by OCCAR (Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation). The joint joint venture between KMW and Rheinmetall Military Vehicles GmbH which procured R&D, has a 64% stake. Other customers after Germany (which fields 403) are the Netherlands (238), Lithuania (81), Australia (211) and the UK (623) with Ukraine expected to receive 36 RCH-155 derivative. Production goes on with Algeria, Qatar, Bulgaria, whereas Japan, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Spain were also interested.
♆ 06/04/2024
US Army M37 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (1945)
The M37 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was a 105 mm howitzer self propelled gun developed by the United States in WW2. The staff requested Cadillac while working on the M24 Chaffee to come up with derivatives, and one of these was a self-propelled howitzer. It was standardized in 1945 but not produced in time before the end of WW2. It saw combat in the Korean War and remained part of the U.S. military until being replaced in the late 1950s, many being used by the Spanish Army afterwards. Approximately 316 were built.
♆ 03/04/2024
soviet tanks 9P148 Konkurs
Part of the BRDM-2 numerous variants tree, the 9P148 Konkurs was a tank-hunter which saw a limited (and discuted) production from 1974 to 1982. It was caracterized by a fixed launcher with five wire-guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) missiles, alternative later to the the 9M111 "Fagot" (AT-4 Spigot), reloaded from inside with up to either 16 or 20 missiles in store. NATO called it the "BRDM-3" until it was rectified. The 9P148 was also exported to the Warsaw Pact as well as many other countries, including Armenia and more recently India while being still used today. It was also copied by China as the AFT-9. In the current war in Ukraine, Oryx states that four Russian one were lost in action, including one captured whereas Ukraine lost 18.
♆ 31/03/2024
romanian tanks TAB-77
The TAB-77 (Model 1977 Armored Amphibious Transporter) was an armored personnel carrier designed and manufactured in Romania. It constitutes the combat and transport for the infantry in mechanized units. This was the successor of the TAB-71, and was in turn replaced by the B-33 Zimbru, now in turn phased out. The reference model for this new national industrial endeavour, was the Soviet BTR-70 APC, which was purchased for evaluation but not adopted. The TAB-77 was a different at many levels, although still very close in general appearance. Designed in the 1970s (details are foggy), the TAB-77 entered service in 1977, hence the name, and it was manufactured either from 1978 or 1982, all the way to the end of the cold war in 1991. Romania also manufactured the BTR-70 under Soviet license, but only for export and for the German Democratic Republic. So it is not counted here as being a "pure" BTR-70. It was marketed by ROMARM.
Turkey ww2
♆ 29/03/2024
turkish tanks Turkish Tanks and AFVs in WW2
Before emerging in the recent decades as one of the largest arms's manufacturer and producer, a pillar of NATO anchored to the middle east, Turkey gathered the largest collection of armoured hardware of the time. In 1950 its inventory comprised all manner of vehicles from all belligerents of WW2, From USSR to Britain, France, Germany and the US. Most of its inventory was not even willfully purchased, it was donated most often by these players in order to gain influence and favours. Neutral Turkey was indeed heavily courted in WW2, pressed to join either side due to its strategic situation, population and resources. A new page and full review of the Turkish tank and AFV park from its roots to the cold war.
♆ 27/03/2024
US Army M20 Command Car (1942)
The M20 scout car was based on the M8, but tansformed with a low, armored open-topped superstructure plus the same AA ring mount for an M2 heavy machine gun, while the crew carried a bazooka, grenades and mines. The M20 was the result of a late 1942 extension of the M8 Greyhound programme, and later fusion between the T26 command vehicle and T20 armored personnel and cargo carrier. It should have been named M10 but renamed to avoid confusion with the Wolverine. It could act also as VIP transport and carried additional radio equipment (like Patton's own M20). 3,680 M20s were built by Ford in 1943–1945, they served at first with tank destroyers units, in Italy and Western Europe and from Normandy to Germany.
Mörserzugmittel 35(t)
♆ 25/03/2024
Mörserzugmittel 35(t) Mörserzugmittel 35(t)
In 1942, the now old Czechoslovak tank LT vz.35 used by the Wehrmacht wince 1939 under the name PzKpfw 35 (t) was consider no longer frontline capable and too vulnerable, especially on the eastern front. It could have been decided to send them back for anti-partisan operations, but there was a real need for artillery towing vehicles, and therefore, in March 1942, WaPrüf 6 decided to test a conversion as artillery tractor. After the prototype by Alkett, 49 were converted at Skoda works in 1942-43. Their fate is unknown.
♆ 23/03/2024
PGZ-95 SPAAA Type 95 (PGZ-95) SPAAA
The PGZ-95 or Type 95 is a self propelled anti-aircraft artillery (SPAA) of the Popular Liberation Army (PLA) of China, its equivalent to the Soviet Tunguska, combining guns and missiles. It presents four 25 mm autocannons and four fire-and-forget type QW-2 short range infrared homing missiles. First displayed at the Beijing Military Parade in 1999 production has been going on since with some 270 made estimated, including Type 90-II/Type 90-III prototypes and only variant, the PGZ-95 (command) battery vehicle. So far, it never was exported. Its successor is the improved PGZ-04/A.
♆ 21/03/2024
MGCS (2030)
It's rare to do some prospective, but there has been recent development about probably the most important ground forces procurement program in Europe, it's main battle tank at the horizon of 2030-2040. This project is called the "Mobile Ground Combat System". Under this rather generic aconym lays the difficult replacement for the beloved de facto European Tank, the German Leopard 2, now a 46 years old platform, and the more recent, but more confidential French Leclerc. In the wake of French-German cooperation (which already failed in 1963), the launch of the 2017 program aimed at starting delivery in 2035. Impulsed by Politicians just like the SCAF it seems however with the war in Ukraine by 2022, emergency and constant industrial disagreements does not bodes well for the future of the program. The lead was to be shared in KNDS (2015 merger between German KMW and French Nexter) and Rheinmetall, KNDS presenting in 2019 a nice mix, the EMBT (nicknamed "Leoclerc") but things had changed since and by 2024 seems less optimistic. What's the program status as of today ?
♆ 18/03/2024
Boragh IFV (1991)
The Boragh is an Iranian Armoured Personal Carrier based on a reverse-engineered Chinese WZ 503 APC, itself based on the Type 86, a copy of the Soviet BMP-1. It differed from both by several elements, being lighter, with a better engine and M113 roadhweels, and also tailored side skirts for protection. Eight variants are known in existence, but only three gained production status. Development started in 1986 and up to 410 are reported in service with the Iranian Army.
♆ 14/03/2024
Shorland Armoured Car (1969)
This conversion of the Land Rover Mark II was created to deal with the 1970s troubles in Northern Ireland, tailored to supplement the hard-pressed Humber Pig, for the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). But given the popularity of the Land Rover worldwide, this cheap adaptation by Short & Harand of Belfast als became a best-seller, widely exported across the world and declined in five main Marks and several sub-variants. Construction goes on today in many places, licenced or unlicenced. This article will be split in two parts.
D-944 PSzH
♆ 11/03/2024
D-944 PSZH D-944 PSzH (1969)
The Soviet BRDM-2 was widely adopted by the Warsaw Pact and appreciated as cheap, simple and versatile. Soon it appeared ideal for local industries, Hungary thus developed from 1963 the D-442 FUG amphibious reconnaissance vehicle. However later was developed a better armed variant called the D-944 PSZH (Páncélozott Személyszállító Harcjármű or "armored personnel carrier"), still amphibious but NBC and with a turret, and produced from 1971 to 1980. It was also exported to East Germany (Schützenpanzerwagen PSH), Czechoslovakia, and Iraq. The last were still in operations in the 1990s.
9p33 Malyutka
♆ 08/03/2024
9p133 Malyutka 9p122/9p33 Malyutka (1968-84)
The 9p122 was a derivative tank hunter of the BRDM-2 standard Soviet 4x4 armoured car, armed with the new 9M14P Malyutka ATGM (NATO AT-3 Sagger). In 1971 production was superseded by the better 9P133 sometimes called "Malyutka-M" armed with the better 9M14P Malyutka-M anti-tank missiles and "Malyutka-P" (AT-3C Sagger C) or 9M14P1 missiles; More than 1400 combined were manufactured by Arzamas until 1984. It was also used by Romania and East Germany, and exported.
M1117 ASV guardian
♆ 05/03/2024
M1117 Armored Security Vehicle (1999)
The M1117 Guardian or "Armored Security Vehicle" (ASV) is an internal security vehicle derived from the Cadillac M706 (V-100 and V-150) Commando. It was developed in the late 1990s for the US Military Police Corps and replaced the said Vietnam era CGC Commando, with the first prototypes presented in February 1997, and mass production between 1999 and early 2000. The ASV saw action in Afghanistan and Iraq and was exported as well, to Bulgaria, Afghanistan, Greece, Iraq, Colombia, Kosovo, while Canada had its own variant the TAPV (Textron Tactical Armoured Patrol Vehicle). It was the first US mine and IED protected vehicle, advantageously replacing the HMMWV. This article will be followed in the future by three related standalone articles, the M1117 ICV APC, the M1200 Armored Knight and the Textron Canada TAPV.
Merkava I
♆ 02/03/2024
MERKAVA I Merkava I (1979)
The Merkava Main Battle Tank is today one of the most singular, notably because it did not came from traditional actors/manufacturers of the type, located mostly in the northern hemisphere. This was the first designed and built in the Middle east, but also with a range of unique features, pretty unique in that restricted club. The Merkava ("chariot") was first designed in the early 1970s, right after, and taking lessons from, the 1973 Yom Kippur war, under General Israel Tal. This flagship of the IDF has some influences but became unique in design choices, which proved worthwile as the type is still in service today after half a century, 45 years of service with the latest Mark IV Barak, and replacement in sight, with the Carmel developed from 2012 by IAI, and still ongoing.
SAVA armoured car
♆ 29/02/2024
belgian armored cars Sava Armoured car (1914)
Only three of the SAVA armoured car, an improved model compared to the earlier Minerva, were built at Antwerp by the Societe Anversoise pour Fabrication de Voitures Automobiles (S.A.V.A.) before the city fell to the Germans. It had a powerful engine, reinforced chassis and more elaborate armour, including a half-turret. They saw action all along the war, and one served as police vehicle until 1923.
BTR MDM Rakushka
♆ 26/02/2024
BTR-MDM Rakushka (2013)
The BTR-MDM Rakushka-M or simply Rakushka is an armoured personnel carrier, based on the hull of a BMD-4M, and designed for the VDV or Russian paratroopers. It was notably designed to operate alongside and protected by the BMD-4M IFV, providing protected mobility for an entire airborne infantry section. Revealed in 2012 for the MD and 2013 for the MDM, then paraded in 2015, the Russian MoD plan to built 2500 of these light amphibious APCs.
♆ 24/02/2024
JSDF Tanks Type 60 Self-propelled 106 mm Recoilless Gun (1960)
The Type 60 Self-propelled 106 mm Recoilless Gun was a light anti-tank vehicle developed by Japan in the late 1950s, mounting two M40 106 mm recoilless rifles as main armament. It was close technically to the Type 60 APC but was developed by Komatsu between 1956 and 1960. Overall, 252 were made by Komatsu until 1977 (later upgraded as the A-C variants) and it stayed in service until 2008, so well over .
♆ 21/02/2024
US Tanks T16 Universal Carrier (1942)
The T-16 followed the British universal carrier, as an upgraded version of this first armoured personal carrier of WWII. The output Ford was capable meant 13,000+ T-16 were manufactured in Massachusetts, mostly used by the British and Canadian Armies from 1943 up to the end of the war, on all fronts. British designation was T-16 Mark 1, but there were more variants along the way. It was a towing vehicle for light field artillery, ammo carrier, personal and supply carrier. The whole programme was designed for and under Lend-Lease.
♆ 18/02/2024
acmat bastion ACMAT Bastion (2012)
The Bastion is a modern French armoured personnel carrier, manufactured by ACMAT (Ateliers de Construction Mécanique de L'Atlantique), entering service in 2012. It was marketed to customers in North America and Oceania via Mack Defense and is now produced by AM General. Evaluated and adopted by the French special Forces in its main PATSAS variant, the Bastion APC is mostly exported and present in the armies and police of Armenia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Chad, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kosovo, Mali, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sweden, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia and Uganda.
♆ 15/02/2024
2K22 Tunguska (1982)
The 2K22 Tunguska is a Soviet tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft gun combined with a surface-to-air gun/missile system, day and night sights and capabilities, and offering full protection for infantry and tank regiments, notably against helicopters, even cruise missiles in the latter version. NATO reporting name for its short-range missiles is SA-19 "Grison". This replacement for the older ZSU-23-4 Shilka was fielded since 1982 in the Soviet Army and saw service however more recently with the Russian Army (c250 in service), in the Georgian war and current war in Ukraine.
♆ 12/01/2024
Type 63A Tank
With the need to replace the old Type 63s and planned operations on Taiwan it was decided a program to either create a new vehicle or upgrade the original as a stopgap, in several directions. First, due to operational conditions, sea travel speed and seaworthiness were worked on with a completely redesigned hull, new engine for a swimming speed of 14 kph over 10 km to shore, brand new main gun and fire control system. So far c300 were converted, with five more for Tanzania. They are waiting for replacement by the ZTD-05.
♆ 09/01/2024
US Interwar and WW2 Armoured Cars
A complete overview of Interwar to the end of WW2, US Army Armoured Cars, all manufacturers and prototypes: T11, Cunningham M1, White M1, M2, M3, Marmon-Herrington M4, T13 Trackless Tank, Ford T2 OPT, T20-22, M8 Greyhound, M20 Utility car, T69 MGCM, T17E1,2,3, T18 Boarhound, Chevy T19, T19E1, Chevy T66E1, Studebaker T23/27, Willys, T24/T25 scout cars, Baker Jumping Tank, Chryler scout car, Tucker Tiger, T230 Fargo, Cook Interceptor, M38 Wolfhound.
♆ 06/01/2024
Wurfrahmen 40
The Wurfrahmen 40, also perhaps better known by its nickname "stuka zum füss" lit. "Foot Stuka" was a rare vehicle deployed by the Wehrmacht during the entire Eastern Front campaign as well as in the West. It was one of several German answers to the Russian Katiushas, rocket-launching vehicles. Whereas the latter were based on the Sd.Kfz.251/I Type 2 armoured half track, generally Ausf B, but later C and D as well. Simple and efficient, although short ranged, they were used until 1945.
♆ 03/02/2024
british tanks Daimler Ferret Swingfire
Also called Daimler Mark V (FV 712), this was the last variant of the early cold war successor of the famous WW2 Daimler Dingo, the ubiquitous light armoured reconnaissance car of the British Army. This last variant of the Daimler Ferret was intended to provide an organic antitank solution to reconnaissance units. Like the tracked FV 702 and 738 tank hunters, this British armoured used a battery of 4 Swingfire Anti-tank wire-guided CLOS/SACLOS Missiles. They were also deployed by the BAOR and paratroopers. These were retired in the late 1980s as the missile technology evolved in between.
♆ 30/01/2024
russian tanks 2S34 Hosta (2014)
The 2S34 Hosta or Khosta/Chosta is a modern 120 mm self-propelled mortar system based on the chassis and turret of the 2S1 Gvosdika 122 mm self-propelled howitzers. Albeit more limited in range, they fired twice as fast and with a much larger variety of ammunitions, including the antitank, laser-guided 3VOF112 "Kitolov-2" ammunition. So far only 30 are allegedly in service (50 according to Russian sources), and they saw officially action in Ukraine from 2022, with so far three lost, including two captured, one exhibited at Prague in 2022.
♆ 26/01/2024
finnish tanks Patria Pasi (1984)

The Patria (Sisu) Pasi is probably the most recoignisable Finnish AFV of the cold war. It was not only its first 100% domestic armoured personal carrier, but its own first mass produced modular military vehicle, studied in the late 1970s and in service from 1984 to this day, also largely exported to Austria, Estonia, Ghana, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland and the Netherlands... It even saw service recenty in Ukraine.

♆ 22/01/2024
The T-72 is an attempt to refurbish the massive park of T-72 kept in Ukraine (c1000 before the war, c500 now) with the latest and best upgrades of the T-80U or T-84BM Oplot level. 50 were reported converted as of 2022, and they saw action, with perhaps 5 more and 5 to follow in 2023. With proper funding, the ukrainian Army still could convert masses of T-72As not engaged yet, in storage depots ready to be refurbished along the same lines, but so far preferred an "austere" upgrade, the T-72 AMT Obr.2022. Future will tell.
♆ 18/01/2024
VT-15 light Tank
The Type 15 "Black Panther" is a third generation light tank operated for the PLA (Army) and PLAN (People's Liberation Army Navy Marine) as well as the Air Force Airborne Corps. A truly universal platform also exported to Bangladesh. It was designed to replace the Type 62 light tank declared obsolete and retired in 2013. It is also known as VT-5 when marketed for export. Dedicated to difficult or mountaineous terrains, it is currently deployed on the China-India border in June 2020, Tibetan Plateau, but also in southern provinces, prepared for a possible invasion of Taiwan scenario.
♆ 14/01/2024
Sheffield Simplex
A rather peculiar, obscure and apparently mediocre armoured car created from an otherwise great prewar tourer. About 50 were ordered at first for Belgium, but they were rejected based on the initial batch (Hotchkiss MG shield) and later 15 Serie II received a new armour scheme and two turrets, and were sent to Russia after this redesign. They were also rejected and versed into training, then spent in the civil war. One, captured, managed so serve with Latvia postwar. This made for a total of 25.
♆ 10/01/2024
us tanks Marder Roland (1980)

The Marder Roland was the first SPAAML in service with the Bundeswehr. The Flugabwehrpanzer Roland or "marder roland" abbreviated "FlaRakPz-1" was a variant of the marder infantry fighting vehicle modified to carry roland short range ground-air missiles. The latter was a successful Franco-German missile which appeared in 1977 at the same time the first prototype of the Vehicle prototype was completed. 140 were built until 1982, in service with the Bundeswehr. They were discarded in 2003-2005 and the Brazilan army also operated four of these from 1979 to 2001.

♆ 06/01/2024
german tanks Fiat 6616 (1972)

In the early 1970s, the newly formed consortium FIAT - OTO Melara for defence, developed on request by the Italian army prototypes of 4x4 armored vehicles to constitute the bulk of new reconnaissance batallions, composed of a troop carrier and fighting vehicle. The second was the Tipo 6616, with a two-man turret and 20mm autocannon, which prototype was completed in 1972, and a batch 50 delivered to the Carabinieri. In grand total, 185 were delivered to Libya, Peru, and Somalia until 1984.

♆ 04/01/2024
czech tanksPolish tanks OT-62 TOPAS (1970)

The OT-62 TOPAS (Transportér Obrněný Pásový) was in the cold war, the main Polish-Czech amphibious tracked armoured personnel carriers (APC). It was jointly developed in 1959-62 by Both countries as a much improved equivalent to the Soviet BTR-50. The vzor 62 had many difference with the Soviet vehicle, and arguably more variants and derivative. They were declined in specialized ARVs notably. The OT-62 was also widely exported (Bulgaria, Angola, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Syria) and saw action in several conflicts. It is still in service notably with India, to be phased out. The type now belongs to a museum but stays as a great symbol of militaro-industrial Warsaw Pact partnerships.

♆ 02/01/2024
soviet tanks T-26T (1933)

The Soviet T-26T was one of several variants of the legendary light interwar tank T-26, the world's most common when WW2 broke out. The T-26T artillery tractor was one of them. Recoignisable to its small armoured structure (or canvas top) c260 were made or converted in 1934-41. But they were found underpowered and the production of 350 more was cancelled in 1937... Many were also captured by the Finns and Germans, as the Waffenkammer RU025 T-26T. This is the first of a serie of articles on T-26 variants.

♆ 25/12/2023
M2 Bradley (1980)

XMAS Special !
Years in writing, this article details the full history of the M2 Bradley, from Vietnam war era studies to its latest upgrades as we speak. That's a story over five decades, seeing generations of engineers to create the perfect infantry fighting vehicle. Part of Reagan's administration trio if new land systems wit the M1 Abrams, the M2 Bradley was to be the US Army main IFV from the Honduras intervention to the the gulf war, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, and still today in Ukraine. Without clear replacement in sight, the 40 years old tracked vehicle will still be around for decades to come...

♆ 22/12/2023
XM 723 (1976)
Next in the MICV 70 program was another infantry fighting vehicle, last and most important in the evolution leading to the XM-2, final prototype of the Bradley. With its much larger hull compared to previous designs and six roadwheels, it had little to do with the good old M113 and more with a compromised, all-purpose heavier machine. This is the last of our dedicated articles on the development of the bradley, after the XM 701, 734, 800, with the YM 765 being reserved for a future article on the AIFV.
♆ 19/12/2023
XM 800T (1973)
The way towards an US Army IFV started in the Vietnam war with the MICV 65 program. However all pointed out to a new vehicle not derived from the M113. In 1972 the MICV 70 program asked for a replacement for the reconnaissance M114. FMC and Lockheed competed, the second with a 6x6 reconnaissance armoured car (XM-800W) and the first, FMC, proposed the tracked IFV XM-800T. Both were armed with the M139 20mm autocannon. Here is the story of the forgotten XM-800 IFV.
♆ 16/12/2023
Pandur (1996)

The Pandur I is an Austrian 6x6 wheeled armored vehicle designed and manufactured by Steyr-Daimler-Puch (now GDELS), designed as APC and declined into multiple variants, with reconnaissance, fire support and other specialists. The Pandur I was used by Austria (now superseded by the Pandur II), and produced under licence in Kuwait, Slovenia (Valuk), Belgium or the US for special forces.

♆ 12/12/2023
Hotchkiss P4R Crotale (1969)

The Crotale ("Rattlesnake") 4 x 4 wheeled Air Defense Vehicle (ADV) system, known under the manufacturer's code P4R, was for decades the French prime SPAAML vehicle. It was originally designed to meet a South African requirement and its development cost was agreed shared 85% by South Africa, 15% by France. Locally called the "Cactus" it was eventually adopted by SANDF, and fieled to three anti-aircraft batteries. Meanwhile, Hotchkiss improved the carrier vehicle, created two radar carrier variants, and further work resulted in more international sales and widespread adoption by the French Army.

♆ 08/12/2023
Belgian Land Component Piranha IIIc DF90 (2006)

The recent, controversial acquisition of the Piranha DF 90, a CMI gun-armed variant of the IIIC ordered en masse by Belgium, was to replace the Belgian Leopard 1A5 MBT in its inventory in the 1990s (recently acquired by Rheinmetall to be refurbished and sent to Ukraine). Armed with a Cockerill med-pressure 90 mm gun the Piranha IIIC DF 90 infantry support vehicle would probably have a hard time against the frontal armour of a T-72 or T-90 and shows both in quantities (only 18 over 40 in service) and quality the limits of the "Belgian Land Component" Today. This post is assorted with a review of the Belgian Army in the cold war up to this day, and its armoured vehicles.

♆ 04/12/2023
Leichtes Artillerie-Raketen-System (LARS) 110 SF1 auf Magirus-Deutz 178 D15 (1969)

Far less well known that the "usual suspects" of the cold war Bundeswehr's, such as the Leopard, Marder or Gepard SPAAG/Roland SPAAML, there was one vehicle that was the de facto inheritor of WW2 Panzerwerfer. Abbreviated as RakArtBtl-122, this 110 mm rocket launcher truck was based on the 6x6 Magirus Jupiter, under the system acronym LARS, intended to pummel advancing Soviet tanks formations. It filled a niche in NATO inventory that only completed later by the M270 MARS. It was replaced in the 1980s by the LARS-2. This is the sister article on truck encyclopedia's Magirus Jupiter (see below).

♆ 30/11/2023
ukrainian afvs LAV Novator (2017)

The company "Ukrainian Armour" is of today's Ukrainian domestic wheeled armoured vehicles, alongside KrAZ and NPO Practika delivered to the Ukrainian Army in recent years. The Company delivers also the Varta APC and intermediate Kamrat. In this case, the Novator is considered a "light APC" or "LAV" in US parlance, for light armoured vehicle. It is intended as a reconnaissance platform but could carry up to nine men. In service from 2019 with the Ukrainian National Guard, c50 had been manufactured and c19 lost in combat recently.

♆ 26/11/2023
M32 ARV M32 Recovery Vehicle (1943)

The M32 ARV was the second (Armoured) Recovery Vehicle fielded by the US Army during WW2, better refined with early experience in this very new field of research. It was to succeed the M31 ARV based on the now obsolete M3 Lee Medium Tank, and produced on the M4, M4A1 (cast hull) and also M4A2, A3 shermans. More were built (1562) from late 1943 to 1945 than any other type. They served in Sicily-Italy by the fall of 1943, France from the summer of 1944, and Germany in 1945 but not the Pacific. They had a set of well-thought tricks which really setup a standard at the time.

♆ 20/11/2023
type99A Type 99A (2007)

The Type 99A and A2 are the latest evolution of the elite Chinese PLA Main Battle Tank today. It is a much improved Type 99 developed from 2003 and tested since 2007, new standard deployed in 2011. Among changes: Driver's hatch moved, Invar-type ATGM, 3rd generation ERA, active protection system, larger arrow shaped turret, more compact hull and new 1500 hp engine as well as a laser warning receiver.

♆ 16/11/2023
2S4 Tulypan 2S4 Tulypan (1972)

The 2S4 Tulypan is a Soviet 240 mm self-propelled heavy mortar, semi-automatic and the largest of such system in use today. 588 were built from 1969 to 1988 and it was exported to Czechoslovakia, Iraq, and today still used by Syria, Kazakhstan and Russia which possessed 40 in active service prior to the war in Ukraine, 26 lost, 350 in reserve. They were deployed in several conflicts from Afghanistan to the Donbass.

♆ 13/11/2023
CMP Fox GMC Fox Armoured Car

The Car, Armoured, Mark I, Fox I (1943) was an adaptation of the Humber Mark III British armoured car for Canadian manufacturing, using a General Motors Canada CMP C-15 (Chevrolet) chassis and engine, combined with a hull identical to the original. The armament was changed to one Browning cal.50 and one cal.03 M1919A4 instead of the original Besa. In total 1,506 were built until early 1945, and they were gradually phased out in favour of the Staghound. They were used in Italy by the Poles, UK (for training, then in Europe) and India, and after the war by the Dutch in Indonesia and the Portuguese in Africa. Their career ended after the 1974 Carnation revolution.

♆ 09/11/2023
type98 Type 98 (1996)

The Type 98 Main Battle Tank (WZ-123, ZTZ-99, Project 9910 was derived from the Type 90-II prototype as China's first 3rd generation main battle tank, but not produced. Instead it is largely seen as a preserie for the Type 99 (ZTZ-99) Main Battle Tank produced so far to circa 1,200 including variants and considered the elite MBTs of the Chinese PLAN.

♆ 06/11/2023
panhard ebr ett frenc cold war Panhard EBR ETT (1957)

The Panhard EBR ETT was an Armoured Personal Carrier variant of the famous 1950s oscillating turret innovative armoured car. The conversion was decided for tests and two prototypes made, but ultimately rejected for service. Instead, 28 were purchased by Portugal which used these in Angola, Mozambique and in the 1974 Carnation Revolution.

♆ 03/11/2023

The The Kurganets-25 is a multirole platform rated for 25 ton, designed to be amphibious, NBC protected and highly modular. It was declined into an infantry fighting vehicle and armored personnel carrier and planned to replace the BMP, BMD, MT-LB and other legacy types. Given its ambitious target, the Kurganets-25 not only have a modular interior, but also modular armor, mission-tailored. First public presentation was the Red Square May 2015 victory parade but initially with its turret and main armament shrouded in rehearsals with pre-production starting by 2016, certifications still going on in 2020-2023 with extensive trials and some changes notably on the chassis.

♆ 31/10/2023
Leyland Beaver Eel (1940)

As part of improvised armored vehicles designed for the Home Guards to face a possible German invasion in the late summer of 1940, one vehicle was intended for air defense of aircraft factories, called "Beaver-Eel" in honor of Lord Beaverbrook, initiator of their construction. The official name became for the Royal Ordnance was "Leyland Tour C Armored Tender". These summarily were based on the 3-ton 6x4 Leyland Retriever. Armament varied between Lewis machine guns, vintage 20-mm Hispano Zuiea HS404 or even older Vickers 1.5-pounder COW gun from the depots. In all 336-340 (depending on sources) were converted and used by the Royal Air Force until 1944 for the protection of airfields and factory, initially for the Battle of Britain.

♆ 27/10/2023
T-55 AGM (2012)

The T-55 AGM is perhaps the most advanced upgrade for the T-55 today, which fought recently in Yemen, Nagorno-Karabakh, Ethopia, Sudan... and Ukraine. Kharkiv Morozov created a rather radical upgrade package portable on similar T-62 or Type 59 Main Battle Tanks. With a new main cannon, RWS system, powerpack and gearbox, tracks and revised drivetrain, better fire control system, new ERA and armour package, new NBC system, new smoke dischargers, extinguishers, the vehicle is considerably enchanced and was from 2012 proposed for export, with a derivative made for Peru so far, the Tifon 2.

♆ 24/10/2023
Nagmasho't (1984)

The Nagmashot (Nagmasho't) is considered the world's first modern heavy Armored Personnel Carrier (HAPC). In 1982, the IDF command saw its fleet of Sho't Kal main battle tank ageing. These non-fully upgraded Centurions were less useful than a potential conversion into a heavy type, to address the lack of protection of conventional APCs in combat. The Hebrew term for an APC "Nagma" was added to "Sho't" to form its name. Many more will follow, upgraded over time. Their actual numbers within Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is blurry, and it is likely all had been converted to more advanced variants: None is listed today in IDF inventory.

♆ 18/10/2023
Panzer II ausf L "Luchs"

The Sd.Kfz.123 Panzerkampfawgen II Ausf L "Luchs" ("lynx") was a WW2 German light tank developed between 1940 and 1942 by Daimler-Benz and MAN. It shared little with previous versions of the Panzer II (1936) having a thicker, larger hull, a Schachtellaufwerk drivetrain, better engine for higher performances, "slack track" configuration and better radios. It was to be the next organic reconnaissance tank the Wehrmacht lacked, but the grand plans of having 600+ delivered by 1944 petered out as only 100 were built from September 1943 to January 1944 (plus four Ausf. M conversions). They served on the Eastern front, many being lost during the offensive on Kursk salient (Operation Citadel) while the survivors and later batches were seen in Normany in the summer of 1944, where two were captured, now in Bovington and Saumur.

♆ 14/10/2023
AMX-30C1 Shahine

The AMX-30C1 Shahine was the third and last of missile carrier variants based on the French AMX-30 chassis. Alo called the AMX-30SA, it was developed in 1975 for Saudi Arabia, to fire the SA-10 Shahine, a local version of the Crotale surface-to-air missile from Thomson-CSF. The vehicle is still currently in service or storage, with 36 delivered. This vehicle was proposed as a logical piece of the major "palm tree contract", based on the AMX-30 Main Battle Tank and its numerous derivatives, all acquired with other French armoured vehicles. This is accompanied by a full review of the Saudi Arabian military, tanks and armoured vehicles (work in progress).

♆ 08/10/2023
SBA-60K2 Bulat (2013)

The SBA-60K2 Bulat armored personnel carrier (APC) was developed by Kamaz and Zaschita in 2010-2013 as a BPM-97 6x6 vehicle development as a MRAP vehicle. 15 were purchased by the Russian Army by late 2014, ordering 50 more from Zashcita. The vehicle was not deployed in Ukraine recently.

♆ 03/10/2023

The FV432 was the armoured personnel carrier developed as part of the FV430 modular series. When production ended in 1971, almost 1,500 FV 432 and 2,500 to 3,000 vehicles used the FV 430 chassis, making it the bedrock of British motorized infantry units in the cold war, in particular the BAOR in Germany. Variants were used by the REME and Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery. Phased out of service in favour of the Saracen 6x6 and later the Warrior and CVR(T), 54 were upgraded so stay in service in the 2020s until August 2006 by BAE Systems as the Mark III Bulldog to be used in Afghanistan and Iraq ("force protection initiative"). This story is not over, including possible use by the Ukrainians in the present conflict.

♆ 25/09/2023
usa M1128 MCS (2002)

The M1128 Mobile Gun System (MGS) is (was now) an interim vehicle specific for the replacement of the light tank, Vietnam veteran M551 Sheridan, retired after the 1991 Gulf War. The quest for its replacement spanned decades and is now resolved with the actual M10 Booker. The M1128 MGS from GLDS was ordered in 2002 alongside the Stryker family as a completely different solution better adapted for the asymetric conflicts of the time. This was however not a sucess, and only 142 were made from 2002 to 2010 by General Dynamics Land Systems. Integrated into the current Stryker brigade combat teams, their planned retirement started in 2022.

♆ 19/09/2023
2S3 Akatsiya (1971)

The SO-152 (GRAU 2S3 Akatsiya) is a Soviet 152.4 mm self-propelled gun. It was first developed in 1968 to answer the American 155 mm M109 howitzer. Development started in 1967, an it completed, accepted for service in 1971 entered service. Its GRAU designation is 2S3. Following the ironic flower naming tradition of Soviet SPGs, "Akatsiya" (Акация) stands for "Acacia".

♆ 12/09/2023
T55AM2B T55-AM2B

The T55AM2B is one of the last, but not the very last evolution of the T-55, born in 1959. After the T-54B, the Czech built T55AM and AM2, the AM2B is the final coldwar non-Soviet evolution of the type. Only a handful were so modernized and served in both the East German and Czech armies before the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. Passed to the successor states, the East German ones soon found new international customers (along with the postwar Polish T-55AM2BP): Cambodia (50), Sudan (20), Slovakia still having 206 by 1995.

♆ 06/09/2023
Al Fao (1989)

The Al Fao (or Al Faw) is a rather peculiar self-propelled artillery vehicle inspired by the South African G6 Rhino and designed by controversial Canadian engineer Gerald Bull to carry a massive 210 mm/53 caliber howitzer capable of firing accelerated 109 kgs shells to 57 km away. Like the Majnoon it was born from an Iraqi specification in 1987 to out-range Iranian M107s. Both prototypes were assembled in time for the Baghdad arms exhibition fair in May 1989. However after the invasion of kuwait, all hopes to produce them vanished (as both vehicles).

czech JVBT-55A
♆ 30/08/2023
czech JVBT-55A JVBT-55 (1970)

The JVBT-55 The JVBT-55A ("crane recovery bulldozer tank") is a project of Czech, T-55A based CRV with higher load capacity that the Soviet-built VT-55A (20 t) and able to lift heavier equipment (turret system, medium tanks) for field repairs, levelling terrain. It was developed by Turčianské strojírny n.p. Martin in 1967, protoype tested in 1970 and production started in 1974 until 1983 with 508 vehicles made in all. Protection wise, the hull retains all the advantages of the T-55A tank.

♆ 23/08/2023
BMD-4 (2004)

The BMD-4 for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta-4 or "Combat Vehicle of the Airborne" is so far the latest infantry fighting vehicle of the Russian airborne (VDV), planned to succeed to the BMD-3 in service since 1990. It was originally designated BMD-3M as based on the same chassis, however so many modifications were made to the turret, that its capabilities were augmented (notably with a new hunter-killer capability, better sights, etc.). So far, c300 has been built, with the objective of equipping 11 batallions of the VDV with 31 of these each (341) plus spares by 2023. An APC and several specialized vehicles has been derived. The BMD-4 sees service in the current war in Ukraine.

♆ 17/08/2023
west germany Spähpanzer Luchs (1975)

The Spähpanzer Luchs ("Lynx") was a West German 8x8 amphibious reconnaissance armoured fighting vehicle (Spähpanzer), in service from 1975 to 2009. The Bundeswehr used 408 of these with the armoured reconnaissance battalions facing the "grenz" during the cold war. Developed by Daimler-Benz between 1968 and 1975 it replaced both the the M41 light tank and Schützenpanzer SPz 11-2 Kurz IFV. Very similar to more modern 8x8 AFVs, it was replaced itself by the current massive KMW Boxer from 2009 (38 tons in battle order versus 19.5 tons). It's the perfect example on how this category grew and scaled up over the last decades.

♆ 09/08/2023
USA M41 HMC Gorilla (1945)

The M41 HMC was a self-propelled M1 155mm howitzer, started in 1942 (T64) and perfected with the adoption of the T24 chassis (M24 Chaffee) while was developed the T64E1, eventually standardized in June 1945 as the M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage later dubbed "Gorilla". The 250 order was curtailed to 85 as the war ended, but it saw action later in Korea and Indochina, bringing precious lessons for the 1960s generation of US Army self propeller artillery.

♆ 03/08/2023
Taiwanese T64 (1975)

The Type 64 is a 1975 conversion of M42 Duster chassis with M18 Hellcat turrets, creating an hybrid that was quite original to answer the need of more firepower to face PLA tanks in case of an invasion in the late 1970s. A total of a single battalion worth of conversions were made. They were active until 1981 and then soon sidelined to reserve/training as new main battle tanks were received.

♆ 25/07/2023
Pegaso BMR-600 (1978)

The Pegaso 3560 BMR was for decades, and still is today for a few more years, the main wheeled Spanish main armoured fighting vehicle, related to the Swiss Mowag Piranha and Austrian Pandur I. It was built by the only Spanish industrial heavyweight capable of undertaking this project, Pegaso. The BMR for "Blindado Medio sobre Ruedas", was a modular 6x6 armoured personal carrier (APC) declined into multiple variants, produced from 1979 and exported to six countries. It was seconded by the VEC Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) based on the same chassis. Production reached more than 1,500 with the ones built in Saudi Arabia.

♆ 19/07/2023
2S5 Giatsint-S 2S5 Giatsint-S (1978)

The 2S5 Giatsint-S (Russian: 2С5 "Гиацинт-С") named after the hyacinth flower, is a Soviet/Russian 152 mm (6-in) self-propelled gun capable of firing further than the older 2S1 Gvodzika or 2S3 Akatsiya, even nuclear projectiles. It entered service in 1978 and is still active today with the Russian Army and Navy (still 570 in inventory and 600+ storage) and a few with Ukraine, Finland (now removed/resold), Belarus, but also exported to Ethiopia and Eritrea. Unlike turreted SPGs, the crew (except the gunner) are deploys outside of the vehicle when in use. It saw action (and still is) in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Donbass and Ukraine as of today.

♆ 13/07/2023
Cold War Spanish Tanks

Full update on the former generic Spanish Tanks Page. This is a rewrite and expansion of the older page, made clearer and deepened with the story of WW2 Panzer-IVs and STUG-IIIs and important industrial players such as Pegaso (for the BMR and VEC armored vehicles) and Santa Barbara Sistemas, tasked notably in upgrading M48, M60, AMX-30 tanks and assemble under licence in Spain the Leopard 2E. It is also responsible today, after the construction of the Pizarro IFV, of the British AJAX IFV. Updates are coming as well as the Pegaso BMR and VEC.

♆ 06/07/2023
T84, Oplot & Oplot M (1993-2023)

Major upgrade of the old article by me and Mike Ennamorato: The T-84 was a modernization of the soviet-era T-80U, a locally built variant of the T-80 which appeared in 1994 but which genesis goes back to 1974. The "BM Oplot" is the latest variant of the Ukrainian T-84, which appeared in 2009, improved in any way to match the soviet T90M and T90BM. It was not adopted by the Ukrainian Army but secured an order for Thailand (49 Oplot-T) delivered in 2016-2019. It also failed to secure an Order to Pakistan (Oplot-P) in 2023 to the Chinese VT-5.

♆ 30/06/2023
Turkish M48A5T2 (1980)

Among NATO Nations, Turkey received the most M48 tanks from the US, starting with the M48A2. In the 1970s, they were gradually replaced by M48A5s and upgraded, leading to the T1 variant. Then Germany sold its own M48A5s making Turkey the most prolific user of the type, they were upgraded to the T2 standard. This park is still partly active (circa 750 operational) but being replaced by upgraded Leopards and the upcoming Altay.

♆ 27/06/2023
Chevy CTA-15 AC (1943)

The C15TA Armoured Truck was developed by General Motors Canada to replace the White M3 Scout Car, based on the Chevrolet C15 Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) truck chassis. Between 1943 and 1945 some 3,961 were built in the Oshawa plant in Ontario, with armoured hulls supplied by Hamilton Bridge. It was not meant for reconnaissance unlike the Otter, but rather like an armoured personal carrier, the first designed and built in Canada. It was widely used in Europe in 1944-45, starting in France and Italy, and after the war, saw action with Belgium, Greece, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, France, South Vietnam, South Africa, Malaya, Portugal and Mozambique afterwards, well helped by the commonality of parts from the 400,000 CMP trucks delivered by Canada in WW2.

♆ 23/06/2023
ZTL 11 SPG (2009)

The ZTL-11 fire support vehicle was developed for the Chinese PLA in 2009, also called Type 11 assault gun. It is based on the ZBL-08 with a new tailored turret for a 100 mm high velocity gun. It is mostly used by the army but allegedly also by the Chinese marines, and is the only fuly amphibious support fire vehicle of its kind, prominently shown in amphibious exercizes and on the frontline for the planned invasion of Taiwan.

♆ 18/06/2023
Type 4 Ha-To (1944)

The Type 4 Ha-To was a heavy self-propelled mortar developed by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. It was designed as a mobile fire support platform in late 1943, making use of the Type 3, 300 mm (12-inches) heavy mortar in the IJA inventory mounted on a chassis mixing elements of the Type 4 Chi-So and Chi-To carrier. Only a single prototype and three serial vehicles were ever built in 1944-45, never used.

♆ 15/06/2023
ZSU-23-4 Shilka (1960)

The ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" is a lightly armored Soviet self-propelled, radar-guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). Still in service despite its partial replacement by the 2K22 Tunguska (1982). With 6500 produced it was exported to 23 countries, and still in service in most of these. The Shilka remains today the most available SPAAG worlwide, having seen combat around the world from 1966 to this day in Ukraine.

♆ 11/06/2023
Soviet Union ZSU-37 (1945)

The ZSU-37 was the very first Soviet Self Propelled Gun (SPAAG). Many more will follow. The type was developed to an artform by the Wehrmacht, deployed by the allies with the M13, M14, M16, M17 Halftracks, but USSR did not possessed that type until late in the war. The model 37 was developed from the end of 1943, produced at Works No. 40 in Mytishchi. ZSU stands for "Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka" ("SPAAG"). Many more will follow in the cold war and USSR will produce and export more than any other country in the following decade, up to the actual 2K22 Tunguska.

♆ 08/06/2023
Humber Light Reconnaissance Car (1940)

The Humber light Reconnaissance Car was designed by Humber to he produced in mass by Rootes Group in 1940-43, with 3,600 delivered in all versions. They soldiered with British, Canadian and Czech reconnaissance units from Tunisia in 1942 to Italy and northern Europe from D-Day to the streets of Hamburg in 1944-45.

♆ 30/05/2023
russian afvs 2S31 Vena (1997)

The 2S31 Vena is Russian amphibious self-propelled 120 mm mortar system, so given the 2S31 is GRAU designation. Based on the BMP-3, it is given a large arrawy of ammunitions, and a new advanced targeting system. Thought as the army version of the VDV's 2S9 Nona, it was first revealed in 1997, produced from 2010. only 18 vehicles were delivered so far to Azerbaidjan, with about a dozen for evaluation in Russia. No vehicle has been deployed in Ukraine yet.

♆ 23/05/2023
paulistas flag Paulista War Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicles

In 1932, between July and October, a fierce civil war erupted between the state of Sao Paulo and the rest of Brazil, contesting the rule of president Getúlio Vargas. Some wished to establish a new constitution, some a full separation. An army was born to topple over the government in Rio de Janeiro, and soon war raged between the "Federalists" and "Paulistas", with tens of thousands of troops, artillery, machine-guns, aviation and a naval blockade. If the former used relatively few tanks but the Renault FT, the second created eight armored vehicles based on cars, tractors and trucks, alongside six armoured trains. Here is this forgotten story.

♆ 15/05/2023
BTR-4 Butsefal BTR-4 Butsefal (1998)

The BTR-4 "Bucephalus" («Буцефал») or Romanized as Butsefal after Alexander the great horse, is an amphibious 8x8 wheeled infantry fighting vehicle designed in Ukraine by the Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau. Despite a limited production of c800 vehicles, the vehicle was exported used extensively in the recent Russo-Ukrainian War from 2014, but also by Iraqi Forces, taking part notably in the capture of Jurf al-Nasr from ISIL. The BR-4 has been declined into eight main versions and also serves with Indonesia, Nigeria and Myanmar.

♆ 08/05/2023
LVTP-6 (1951)

The prototypes of the LVTP-6 serie were an attempt to create a modern amphibious APC. Born from the US Navy Bureau of Ships, the new vehicle was based on the a much shorter chassis using the same roadhweels as the standard M113 and was to be a way cheaper version of the LVTP-5, at 41,000 Ib in battle order with a payload still of 10,000 Ib, 8000 waterborne, or 20 equipped Marines. Both military engines and conversions were tried, and a Chrysler engine-transmission was ultimately chosen but the vehicle ultimately never made it into production. Instead after many further development years, the choice fell on the new LVTP-7, a compromise between both. The latter is still in service, whereas the LVTP-6 remained a prototype.

♆ 01/05/2023
122mm D-30 323 "M-1977"

The M-1977 122mm self propelled (SP) gun/howitzer is another typical North Korean product, a mix between the mass-built VT-322 APC coupled with the 122mm D-30 gun-howitzer, with enclosed sides and open top. It is called more simply "M 1977" as its real designation is unknown to this day by western/asean Intel services. The M1977 designation was allocated by the US Department of Defense, based on year this system was first observed by US intelligence. But it is dated 1976 as a matter of common understanding that it was likely built and designed a year before being introduced and observed.

♆ 24/04/2023
Bison APC

The Bison is a Canadian variant related to the American LAV-II produced by General motors, and itself a derivative of the Swiss MOWAG Piranha 8x8, one of the most successful western wheeled multirole vehicle of the last three decades. It was to replace the GDLS-Canada 6x6 family of Armoured Vehicle General Purpose (AVGP) Grizzly and Cougar of the seventies in a more dedicated, specialized package. The vehicle was accepted in 1990 and is still in service with the Canadian Armed Forces after a refit in the 2000s, partially replaced by the LAV-III, then the LAV-6 in this decade, and pending replacement in the 2040s by a brand new modular vehicle, yet unknown.

♆ 17/04/2023
PTS-M (1965)

The PTS is a Soviet tracked amphibious transport started as Ob'yekt 65 in 1962 and introduced in 1965. It was armoured and had a payload of 10 tons, many more than the previous BAV 485, a postwar adaptation of the US DUKW, with better cross-country performance and rear ramp. In the 1970s was introduced the improved PTS-M and later appeared other variants PTS-2 to 4. The PTS-M was exported to 20 countries and saw a lot of action.

♆ 31/03/2023
Talbot Armoured Cars (1914)

The Talbot was a British armoured car built on the chassis of a Clément-Talbot tourer and if 21 were ordered, only a small numbers were gradually converted to several patterns, from improvized open-top to turreted pattern vehicle in late 1915. The Talbot armoured cars saw an intensive service with the R.N.A.S. in 1914-1915 alongside Rolls-Royce and Delaunay-Belleville among others. This is a rather foggy vehicle due to the lack of documentation an improvized nature of the project, as they were intended to rescue pilots behind enemy lines.

♆ 24/03/2023
chinese tanks Hongqi HQ-7/FM-80 (1989)

The HQ-7 (For "Hongqi"-7 (hóng qí) meaning "red flag" or "red banner"), is the name of a ground-to-air AA short range missile developed in China from the R-440 Crotale ("Rattlesnake") missile. Development of the HQ-7 system in 1980 started on a 4x4 armoured carrier called P20 based on the French Hotchkiss P4R. The vehicle was not exported and replaced by the new 6x6 HQ-7A FM-90 introduced from 1998, the current short SPAAML of the Chinese PLA.

♆ 16/03/2023
sd.kfz.6/2 Sd.Kfz.6/2

The Sd.Kfz. 6/2 Selbstfahrlafette was a German self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery of WW2. It was based on the Sd.Kfz.6 Zugkraftwagen 5t prime mover and engineers vehicle. It was designed to support Luftwaffe units integrated into armoured divisions, tasked for anti-aircraft protection. 339 were converted, in a process starting in 1941 and completed in 1943. It was eventually replaced by the cheaper and larger Sd.Kfz 7/2.

♆ 10/03/2023
AVIBRAS ASTROS (1984-2020)

The Avibras ASTROS is a multiple rocket launcher system developed by Avibras Indústria Aeroespacial. The name ASTROS stands for the acronym of "sistema de artillería de cohetes" or "Artillery Saturation Rocket System". It could be configured to launch different types of rockets with ranges of up to 300 km. In service with the Brazilian Army since the 1980s it was exported notably to Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Indonesia seeing action in the Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Yemeni Civil War among others.

♆ 02/03/2023
leclerc DCL Leclerc DCL and EPG (1991-2010)

The LECLERC DNG/DCL and the EPG are today's French Army Main Engineering Vehicles. Developed by GIAT industries back in 1994, the serie is now maintained by Nexter/NTDS. The first EPG, mine-sweeping variant, rolled in 2001, but the program was not followed, the contrary pf the DNG (Leclerc Tank dedicated salvage vehicle) and the DCL with a serie taking place in the 2000s, now used by France and the UAE.

♆ 24/02/2023
ww2 british AFVs Humber Scout Car (1942)

The Humber Scout Car was a British light scout car entering service in 1942, and in production until 1945. This was Humber's response to the Damiler Dingo being in huge demands, and used thesame basic specifications. It was to be also used for reconnaissance and liaison between units, but was much heavier and larger. Both protection and armament were minimal, the crew of only two had access to a radio and Bren Guns for defence. Being much heavier and larger it could not compare to the more famous Daimler Dingo, but still evade what it could not fight. The Daimler Ferret armoured car was inspired by in 1952.

♆ 16/02/2023
ZBD-04 (1997)

The ZBD-97 (1997) and ZBD-04 (2004) are two faces of the same coin. Before the ZBD-04, was the ZBD-97 (Factory designation WZ502), a fully tracked infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) developed for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The ZBD-97 entered service in 1999 to early 2000s while the ZBD-04 entered service in 2006. Both are designed to serve independently of, or in coordination with main battle tanks. They carries a fully equipped infantry squad whole covering them with heavy fire support, while keeping amphibious capabilities. The ZBD-04 (ZBD-97 main production run) is today deployed with the Guangzhou and Nanjing military regions. It was declined into multiple variants, including an Ambutank, Engineering Vehicle and Anti-tank missile vehicle as well as an ARV and evolved into the improved ZBD-04A. In all about 400 of these amphibious IFVs has been produced, shared by the PLA and PLAN's Chinese Marines and likely to be used for the invasion of Taiwan. We will go more into sub-variants in the following weeks.

♆ 10/02/2023
french AFVs cold war Berliet VXB-170 (1972)

The French Berliet VXB-170 was designed as an armored personal carrier (APC) in 1969, competing against Renault's VAB for the largest post-WW2 army procurement program (the equivalent today would be the scorpion program). Berliet was not chosen, but found a customer with the Gendarmerie which looked years later for a similar vehicle for crowd and riot control. Then three export customers followed. When Berliet was acquired by Renault in 1978 however, the VXB was seen as a competitor for the VAB and terminated after 179 vehicles built.

♆ 02/02/2023
Bangladeshi Tanks and AFVs (1974-2023)

Full review of the Bandgadesh Armoured Forces, all models in use since the 1971 Liberation war of "East Pakistan": T-54, Type 59, 59 Durjoy, MBT-2000, VT-5, BTR-70, 70, Type 63 Tank, Type 63 APC, IFV, SPH, MT-LB, Otokar Cobra... Also, history, organization, detailed units, and operations: Bangladesh is probably the largest UN contributor given the country's budget.

♆ 25/01/2023
c la dech au bangladesh Type 59 Durjoy (2015)

The Type 59 Durjoy (“invincible” in Bengali) is essentially a highly modernized Chinese Type 59 for the Bangladesh Army similar to the Type 59G standard made at the 902 Central Workshop of the Bangladesh Machine Tools Factory, with Chinese assistance. The Durjoy is now the one and only specific MBT of the Bangladesh Army, shared by none. Most sources agrees the Army possesses a tital park of 174 nowadays. The upgrade program started in 2014, with the first in service in 2015 as a good complement to the VT-1 and MBT-2000. The Durjoy is also a good proposition to keep frontline aging Type 59s still in service around the world.

♆ 16/01/2023
xm734 XM734 (1966)

The XM734 was an another project related to the MICV 65 program the first step towards the long development of the M2 Bradley. Unlike the more advanced XM701 this was FMC's modification of the basic M113 with a centrally-mounted fuel tank, bunks facing outwards gun ports, plus other details. The six allegedly built were tested at Aberdeen, but this led the Army to ask for the improved XM765.

♆ 09/01/2023
UR-77 UR-77 Meteorit (1977)

The UR-77 belongs to this rare category of armored vehicles called MICLIC, a specialized missile/rocker firing mine clearing vehicle, using a flexible hose filled with explosive to clear up large paths in minefields practicable by infantry and vehicles alike. Based on the 2S1 Gvodzika chassis, the few UR-77 built (accepted in 1977) were passed on to Russia, and exported in small numbers to Azerbaidjan and Syria. Together they saw a lot of action, including in the current war in Ukraine.

♆ 29/12/2022
XM-701 (1965)

XM-701 The XM-701 Infantry Combat Vehicle from Canadian Car and Foundy, was part of MICV-65 programme. It was to create an experimental, interim Infantry Fighting Vehicle leading to the later MICV-70 programme. Later redesigned it became the M2 Bradley. It was the first step in its development, in a sense killed by the arrival of the Soviet BMP-1, not satisfactory trials and redefinition of specifications in 1967-68. This is the start of a serie on the lineage leading to the M2 Bradley in 2023.

Famae Piraña (1982)
23.11.2022 Cardoen and FAMAE (Chile) started assembling the Swiss Mowag Pirana 6x6 in 1980 and the 8x8 in 1990. It proved the basis for heavier variants, notably two turreted heavy support vehicle and a 25mm chain gun IFV. The Chilean army by combining forces of its two industrial giants managed to produce under licence some 250 Piraña I 6×6 and 25 Piraña I 8×8, still in its inventory in the 2000s, including many variants, IFV, mortar carrier, ambulance, command vehicle. Here are their story.
BA-22 (1939)
09.11.2022 The BA-22 was a Soviet armoured ambulance developed in the late 1930s by GAZ, armored by Izhorskiy on a BA-10 armoured car chassis. It started development in 1939, as an armoured evacuation vehicle, the first such dedicated vehicle in the Soviet Army. However tested and rejected by the ABTU RKKA for service, the single prototype only built was kept for testings until the end of the war. It could have become also the first Soviet APC.
Marder IFV (1969)
26.10.2022 The Marder IFV started development as soon as the Schützenpanzer HS.30 was undergoing tests. It was seen as a heavier IFV designed to accompany Leopard Tanks on the battlefield and during its long development started to evolve as an answer to the Soviet BMP-1/2. The Schützenpanzer Marder was infinitely superior to the 1950s SpZ. "Kurz" and "Lang" which it replaced and was upgraded in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s up to the Marder 1A6, and still 300 in the inventory today alongside the new Puma IFV.
dragoon 300
Dragoon 300 (1982)
13.10.2022 The Dragoon 300 was designed by Verne Corp. to meet a requirement of the US Military Police at the end of the Vietnam war, which wanted an air-transportable equivalent to the Cadillac Gage Commando. The requirement was cancelled but Verne teamed with Arrowpointe Corp. to market it internationally, and outside the US Navy and some police agencies to protect sensible areas, the vehicle was also exported to six other countries, and declined into a dozen variants, with circa 400 being built by AV Technology Corp. until the introduction of the Dragoon 2 and its production by GDLS in Spain (Santa Barbara).
Praga M53/59
Praga M53/59 SPAAG (1959)
27.09.2022 The Praga M53/59 was for decades the main SPAAG of the Czechoslovakian Army. Developed from the sturdy Praga V3S 6x6 truck, it was studied to carry a twin 30 mm AA gun and was a reliable, albeit slow vehicle, seeing active service for most of the cold war, taking part in many conflicts like the 1967-73 middle eastern, Libyan, Iran-Iraq, and Yugoslavian wars among others, and still in active service in four countries today.
T12/M3 GMC (1941)
31.08.2022 The T12, later standardized in late 1941 and produced from February 1942, until April 1943 as the M3 Gun Motor Carriage was a self-propelled gun based on the M3 White Half Track Car. More than 2,200 were delivered by the Autocar Company, soldiering in the Philippines in January 1942, North Africa, Sicilia and Italy until replacement by the M10 Wolverine. About 1300 were reverted back as regular M3A1 half-tracks, the remainder, not lost in action, still served in many amphibious operations of the Pacific, such as Saipan, Peleliu, Tarawa, and Okinawa.
M114 (1962)
24.07.2022 The story of the M114 is one of a failed opportunity. It was manufactured by Cadillac (General Motors) in the early 1960s, even before the Vietnam war as a fast and stealthy reconnaissance armored all-tracked vehicle that can perform also communication and control on the battlefield. It was indeed smaller and nimbler than the M113, technically faster, and still amphibious and air-droppable. But from paper to reality, the concept quickly proved unsuited for the Vietnam War and was replaced by the M551 Sheridan. It was retired gradually in 1979, considered a failure and ending as surplus used by police departments.
MT-LBu (1974)
08.07.2022 The MT-LBu (NATO M1974) was a standard Soviet Artillery Command and Communication vehicle developed to replace the AT-P vehicles, and sharing a lot of components with the MT-LB multipurpose prime mover/transport. It was declined into more than 60 variants, licence-built also by Poland and Bulgaria, exported to some 30 countries, still used by most today, seeing also combat in many conflicts.
A30 Avenger
17pdr Cruiser A30 Avenger (1944)
29.06.2022 The A30 Avenger was another attempt to give the British armored division a suitable tank hunter fitted with the "long" 17 pounder antitank ordnance. However a protracted development based on the transitional Cruiser Tank Challenger (A30) meant the Avenger never really was operational, with even less made than the Challenger. It never really entered service nor was deployed in any theater of war and was retired in the late 1940s.

Dodge 3-tonnes AM "Tanaké" (1940)

09.06.2022: The Dodge "Tanaké" armored car was a rather obscure French conversion was made on an imported Truck G60L in Beyrouth in 1940. The vehicle fought with Vichy French troops against the allies in 1941, with the 13th DBLE of the Free Foreign Legion against the Afrika korps in 1942, and in 1948 with the Syrian Arab Legion.

Vickers Carden-Loyd light amphibious tank (1931)

25.05.2022: The Vickers Carden-Loyd light amphibious tank, also known as the army prototypes (war office) A4E11 and A4E12 and manufacturer names L1E1 and L1E2, was an experimentak floating light tank which was never adopted by the British Army but instead was exported to Japan, the Dutch KNIL, and China, where most were used in combat and lost.

PGZ 88 (1986)

18.05.2022: The Type 88, also referred as the PGZ-88, was a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun, first was revealed in 1989. Developed since the early 1980s it was fully-automatic, but only a 24 were built for evaluation trials; It was never accepted for service nor exported but helped pave the way for better systems like the Type 95 and Type 07. As of today these vehicles has been displayed and stored, kept in reserve or scrapped.
17pdr Sp Achilles (1943)

17pdr Sp Achilles (1943)

05.05.2022: The 17 Pdr SP (M10 C) Achilles was a conversion of the lend-lease, US-built, M10 Wolverine Tank Hunter, in order to accomodate the excellent Orndance 17 pounder antitank gun supplied in large quantities from late 1943 to the British Army and soon supplied to the Canadians and Free Polish Forces. Over 1,100 were converted until April 1945, soldiering from Normandy to Italy and Germany.

Bushmaster PMV (1995)

28.04.2022: The Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle is the first armoured vehicle to be designed and completely manufactured in Australia since the Sentinel tank during World War II. It is a four-wheel drive "Infantry Mobility Vehicle" initiated by the government-owned Australian Defence Industries (ADI), but currently by Thales Australia, under contract by Oshkosh Truck (which owns now ADI). It is in service outside the Australian Army, with the RAAF, the Royal Netherlands Army, British Army, JGSDF, Indonesia, Fiji, Jamaica, New Zealand and Ukraine.

9P162 Kornet-T

20.04.2022: The 9P162 Kornet-T is an anti-tank missile carrier designed in Russia on the basis of the BMP-3 IFV, part of the 9K128 "Kornet-T" complex, and design to carry and operate the 9M133 Kornet anti-tank guided missile. It was designed to replace the older 9P149 Shturm-S based on the MT-LB, but also the 9P148 Konkurs based on BRDM-2 armored scout car. First Kornet-T anti-tank missile carriers were delivered in 2003, but tests and fixes were ongoing for many more years. A first batch of 20 were delivered to the Russian Army in 2012.

Sd.Kfz 233

Schwerer Panzerspähwagen (7,5 cm) auf Sd. Kfz. 233 (1942)

13.04.2022: The schwerer Panzerspähwagen (7,5 cm) Sd. Kfz. 233, or simply know as the "Sd.Kfz.233" was part of the family of heavy reconnaissance 8x8 armored cars developed from 1937, starting with the Sd.Kfz. 231; It was developed in 1942 when the need arise in reconnaissance batallions to field a dedicated artillery support vehicle. The Sd.Kfz 233 armed with the ubiquitous 7,5 cm K37 L24 also shared by the early Panzer IV and 135 vehicles were manufactured from July 1942 to October 1943.


M12 GMC (1942)

06.04.2022: The M12 GMC was the first heavy self-propelled gun in service with the US Army during WW2. It had a rocky past, developed in early 1942 and produced to just 100 vehicles that were send in storehouse apart those kept for training. In early 1944 however 75 were dusted out to be modernized and sent to equip several artillery batallions deployed for the Normandy Landings. The M16 GMC, assisted by the M30 ammo carrier, had a remarkable career until the end of the war in Europe, still equipped with a vintage WW1 155 mm gun.

TR-85 (1985)

30.03.2022: The Tank Romanesc model 85 is the actual main battle tank of the armed forces, studied during the cold war to succeed to the TR-77, equipped with a new Romanian powerpack, transmission, gearbox, wheeltrain, suspensions, and fire control system, among others. The TR-85M1 Bizonul was developed with a new turret bustle from 1994 and many other upgrades. Only 54 are currently in active service today, alongside 250 TR-85, the rest placed in reserve or converted into special vehicles, for a grand total of 617 vehicles.
D-442 FUG (1963)
24.03.2022 The Soviet BRDM-2 was a simple and versatile vehicle that draw attention of Warsaw Pact countries as a good candidate to be copied, or emulated by their own industries. Hungary was one such country. The D-442 FUG (Felderítő Úszó Gépkocsi "amphibious reconnaissance vehicle") and its main variant, the D-944 PSZH (Páncélozott Személyszállító Harcjármű – "armored personnel carrier") were both product of Hungarian domestic development, for a vehicle that was even cheaper, and amphibious, exported to Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Poland among others
BOV (1983)
17.03.2022 The BOV is a 4x4 armoured vehicle designed and built in Yugoslavia during the latter part of the cold war. It was designed originally as a tank hunter put into service as the POLO M83, and later declined into an APC version (M86 or later BOV-VP), and a SPAAG version BOV-3. Production went up to circa 650 vehicles, which soldiered in the Yugoslavian wars and is still produced in Serbia as the BOV-2 by Yugoimport, while older vehicles were passed onto successors states.
2cm Flak 38 auf Selbstfahrlafette Zgkw.3t
2cm Flak 38 auf Selbstfahrlafette Zgkw.3t (Sd Kfz.11) (1943)
10.03.2022 Also called SdKfz 11/1 (late version), this derivative of the Sd.Kfz 11 light prime mover and utility half track of the Wehrmacht, was armored with a body recalling the SdKfz 251 used by the Panzergrenadiers. But it carried on its flatbed a 2 cm Kanone FLAK 38 for organic AA defense of various units, being apressing issue in 1944 with the gradual loss of air supremacy over Europe. The vehicle had no nickname, and served on the Eastern Front and Normandy until the fall of Germany in May 1945, often also as close support vehicle.
9K31 Strela-1
9K31 Strela-1 (1968)
02.03.2022 The 9K31 Strela-1 is the TEL 4x4, or carrier derived from the 1960 BRDM-2, part of the weapons system 9P31, including the missile 9K31 (NATO SA-9 GASKIN). It was developed from 1960 in complement to the ZSU-23-4 Shilka SPAAG to bring an organic short/medium range of combined AA guns and missiles for anti-aicraft defense of the Warsaw Pact armies. Produced to about 2,000 vehicles, used by all Warsaw Pact countries and largely exported, it saw plenty of action since the 1970s, and it's certainly not over. It's seeker was unique in that it could engage incoming jets, not possible for other IR seeking systems.
peugeot pvp
Peugeot PVP APC (1995)
22.02.2022 The Panhard PVP (for "petit vehicle protégé") was an armored light utility vehicle intended to partially replace the Peugeot P4 softskin utility vehicle on some missions. The P4 indeed revealed its vulnerability in combat in ex-Yugoslavia in 1995 peace-keeping operations. Panhard developed a protection kit (P4P) but the French army launched procurement for the future PVP, developed and produced, by successively Auverland, Panhard, Renault Truck Defense and now Aquus as the "Dagger". 1133 has been produced from 2004 to 2012. More modern versions are now marketed.
ford 3 ton tank
Ford 3-ton tank (1917)
09.02.2022 The Ford 3-Ton M1918 was one of the first tank designs, intended for a 15,000 strong production in 1919. It was a small two-man, turretless, one-MG tank capable of 8 mph (13 km/h), with a range of 34 miles (55 km). Of the 15 prototypes, a single one was tested in France in 1918, but the order was cancelled at the end of the war.
Altay Main Battle Tank (2012)
02.02.2022 The Turkish Altay Main Battle Tank (3rd gen.) development could be traced back to 1993 but it's only from 2010 that the project gained traction. After prototypes in 2016-2021, a first batch signed in 2012 should see a production start in 2023 (it was delayed twice, notably due to COVID, and powerplant issues). A total of 1,000 had been planned in order to replace the four existing main tank types in service in the Turkish Armies, and most probably upgrade the current Leopard 2A4.
TOS-1 Buratino (1988)
26.01.2022 The TOS-1 Buratino ("Pinocchio") system was developed back in the 1980s. The idea of themobaric or napalm rockets was to create a large cloud of flammable gas, also causing massive explosions in the process to clear out bunkers and fortifications of any kind on the battlefield. It was based on the trusted T-72 MBT chassis, production has remained ellusive, but the vehicle was modernized and also widely exported, seeing combat action since the fall of USSR.
Shaanxi Baoji Tiger
Shaanxi Baoji Tiger APC (2010)
19.01.2022 Called the ShaanXi Baoji Special Vehicle "China Tiger", the vehicle was first revealed at At Eurosatory 2012 Defence Exhibition by the Chinese defence Company Shaanxi Baoji Special Vehicles Manufacturing. This new 4x4 armoured vehicle personnel carrier was developed for the international market under the name "Tiger". Currently still produced, exported so far to Bahamas (2), Bolivia (24) and Somalia (12).
Chinese PLA ZBD-03 IFV (2002)
12.01.2022 Introduced in 2002, the Chinese ZBD-03 is today the mainstay of the Chinese PLA airborne divisions, as infantry fighting vehicle. It was first designed in 1998 and was produced in the 2000s to perhaps 1,500 vehcles, also declined into the specialized variants of Command Post and ATGMS tank hunter, mirorring the Russian BMD-2
2s25-sprut SD
2S25 Sprut SD (2005)
05.01.2022 Introduced in 2004, the 2S25 self propelled airborne and amphibious tank destroyer was produced at the Volgograd Tractor Plant, and circa 30 or less has been produced so far as of 2018. Replacement has been planned already and it seemed no further orders would be delivered. The vehicle is still actie in an operational airborne brigade with 24 vehicles today.
semovente da 149/40
Semovente da 149/40 (1943)
28.12.2021 The Semovente da 149/40 was the ultimate, heaviest built Italian self propelled gun of WW2. It used the Cannone da 149/40 modello 1935, mated on a M15/42 M42 chassis by Ansaldo leading to a prototype in December 1942, but production setup dragged on until Italy capitulated, and the sole protoype ended in Germany.

15.04.2021: Fiat 6614 (1972)

fiat 6614

The FIAT Tipo 6614 was a 4x4 armoured personal carrier developed in the 1970s to answer some Italian Army specifiications for a cheap vehicle, that was to be use later by the Italian police and Carabineri units as well as the Air Force or the army in peace-keeping deployments. It was also widely exported. It was also declined into the FIAT 6614 infantry fighting Vehicle and South Korean KM-900.

10.04.2021: M31 TRV (1941)


The early standard T2 Tank Retreiver (TRV) became the M31 ARV when standardized in late 1942. It was produced or converted from existiing M3 Lee and Grant Medium Tanks. They were the first purpose tracked recovery armoured vehicles used by the US Army, also sent to the Soviets and Free French as lend-lease as well. They were used until the very end of the war, despite their sucessor, the M32, was based on the M4 Sherman, declared standard in October 1943 already.

05.04.2021: Canadian Armoured Autocar (1914)

armoured autocar

The Armoured Autocar was an armoured vehicle, more a mobile, motorized armoured machin gun nest than an armoured personal carrier or even a regular armoured car as it had no turret. Initiated by French Canadian captain Raymond Brutinel, this vehicle was funded by him and with the support of the Minister for the Canadian militia in 1914, resulting in the creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, world's first motorized unit of that kind anywhere in the world. Although the static nature of the Western front did not gave them much occasions of sustained action, the German spring offensive in 1918 saw them used in active defense and later, taking part in the last offensives, when mobility returned to the battlefield.

26.03.2021: 7.62cm Pak-36 r-Auf 5t Zugkraftwagen Selbstfahrlafette ausf SdKfz.6/3 "Diana" (1940)


The 7.62cm Pak-36 r-Auf 5t Zugkraftwagen Selbstfahrlafette ausf SdKfz.6/3, more commonly known "Diana" was a rare conversion (only nine) of the Sd.Kfz.6 troop transport and artillery tractor half track of the Wehrmacht, first designed in 1936 and initially produced by Büssing-NAG, and Mercedes from 1942. It was a tank-hunter conversion featuring a Russian 76.2 mm F-22 universal gun, protected by an armoured box. They were all used (and lost) in North Africa with the Deutsche Afrika Korps and 605 Pzabt.(mot), together with the Panzerjäger-I, also using a captured gun.

22.03.2021: BTR-D (1974)


The BTR-D was Soviet's airborne troops armoured personal carrier (APC). It was developed following reports of the limitations in the field of the BMD-1 airborne IFV, too cramped to carry effectively four soldiers. In effect, the BTR-D reused much of its IFV brother, but with no turret and a much larger compartment, and longer wheeltrain. Armed with just two PKT bow machine guns, it is a pure APC able to carry three paratroopers in addition to its crew of three. The BTR-D was accepted in 1974 and deployed in all soviet airbone units in the 1970-80s. It also saw service in several conflicts and had been upgraded and declined into a multitude of variants, like the "Nona" self propelled gun. Still active with the Russian, Ukrainan armies and others today.

17.03.2021: Karl Gerät (1939)

Karl Gerat
The Karl Gerät self-propelled howitzer was the largest ordnance ever deployed by any belligerent during WW2, outside railway guns. Its caliber was larger than the Sturmtiger, and its range superior, and it was given tailored 60 cm caliber bunker-busting shells to deal with Belgian and French fortifications. However, the wesstern campaign ended before it could be deployed. In all seven of these were built, named after Nordic deities. They served mainly on the Russian Front, dealing with massive fortifications as Sebastopol and elsewhere, even taking part in the battle of the bulge, the warsaw uprizing, or attempting to destoy the bridge at Remagen.

08.03.2021: M752 MGM-52 TEL (1971)

The M752 was a complete tactical mobile missile system, with its TEL (Transporter Launcher Erector), comprising the MGM-52 tactical missile, fitted either with a nuclear warhead or a versatile conventional warheard, HE and fragmentation (sub-munition model), and its TEL vehicle, the M677 based on the M113, deployed from 1971 to the end of the cold war and also used by NATO counties and Israel.

01.03.2021: Carro M15/42 (1942)


The Carro Armato Medio M15/42 was the last Italian Tank for about 60 years. It was designed with a brand new, more powerful FIAT gasoline engine for increased performances and a much better, high velocity 47 mm gun. However many other aspects did not changed like the riverted armour and classic two-bogie leaf sprung suspension and drivetrain, negating the performance increase. Only a handful, perhaps 150 of these last Italian medium tank were delivered before the armistice, but production went on under German occupation, and the vehicle was declined in several variants, including a SPAAG.

25.02.2021: DAF YP 408 (1975)

YP-408 The DAF YP-408 started as a Royal armoured transporter of the Dutch household guards in case of impending atomic war. From a sturdy 4x6 truck chassis by DAF, its was transformed into a 6x8 APC. From this base, with over 800 manufactured, about eight main variants and six sub-variants of this vehicle was produced and used by the Dutch Army in Suriname and Lebanon, and also used by Portugal, Chile and Suriname.

19.02.2021: PHZ-89 (1989)


The type 89 was developed from 1985 to 1989 as the Chinese premier (Self-Propelled) Multiple Rocket launcher System (MRLS), approved in 1989 but entering service in 1990 so it's as much a modern vehicle than a cold war one.

10.02.2021: The SdKfz 254 (1936)

SdKfz 254

Started as a German Experiment, later copied in Austria, and took over after the Anschluss in 1939... by the Germans, the vehicle known as the Saurer RR-7 was quite unique, as the unique wheel-cum track vehicle in service with the Wehrmacht during the war. Under German supervision it was armoured, armed, and a handful were produced, around 170, used as artillery tractors and artillery observation vehicle in north africa and Russia under the waffenamt designation Sd.Kfz.254.

06.02.2021: The 2K12 Kub (SA-6 "Gainful" Carrier)


The 2K12 "Kub" was the main tracked armoured carrier for the medium-range anti-aircraft ground-to-air missile SA-6 (NATO codename "Gainful"). In service from 1967, it has been designed by NIIP/Vympel and MMZ (GM chassis) and manufactured by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant unti 1985 to around 500 vehicles, and declined into the 2K12 Kub, 2K12E Kvadrat (export version), 2K12M3, 2K12M4, exported 33 countries, and seeing action in a dozen conflicts, still in service today.

30.01.2021: The M60 Sabra (1993)

M60T Sabra

The M60T Sabra was an Israeli radical modernization of the M60T, which was the already modified Turkish version of the M60 Patton Main Battle Tanks, of which thousands have been delivered to the Turkish armed forces since the 1980s. The M60T Sabra is derived from the Magach 7 and numerous Israeli versions of the M60 Tank. It has been produced to around 300 vehicles, deployed notably in Syria and Libya among others.

22.01.2021: The BMD-2 (1985)


The Soviet BMD-2 was the second IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicles) developed specifically for the paratroopers. It was basically a modernized BMD-1, according to the lessons of Afghanistan, made to operate in such theater of operations. However the collapse of USSR meant the BMD-2, which development started in 1981 had a production run at Volgograd Tractor Plant of about 2,500 vehicles, stopped in 1991. It was modernized since, an the version M is intended to upgrade all vehicles, of which around 850 are in service today, for 1,500 in reserve and a few in Ukraine. They saw action in several conflicts but are now superseded by the larger BMD-3 and are to be replaced by the BMD-4 in the 2020s.

18.01.2021: The Type 90-II MTB

Type 90-II MTB

The Chinese PLA Type 90 Main Battle Tank represented an evolutionary step, proceeded from the T-85, which in turn was a Chinese copy of the T-72. But if the Type 90 shared most of its components with the Type 85, the turret was heavily modified to house a brand new 125 mm smothbore autoloaded main gun. Known in its variant II, derived from the Type 85-IIM, it also introduced ERA semi-active protection. The Type 90-II was refused for production by the PRC but its development went on for export solely, leading to the VT-1 and Al-Khalid, for which 550 had been built for six customers.

15.01.2021: The SU-122/54


The Soviet SU-122/54 was a tank hunter developed in 1948-1954 with many delays, on the ever changing basis of the T-54 medium tank, to carry the 122 mm D49 tank gun, and to perform the role of US/British heavy tank destroyer. The gap bewteen the first three roadwheels made some NATO experts believed it was based on the T-62 chassis. Since priorities changes however during production, it was cut to just 77 vehicles, and their service lasted until the 1970s.
Archives Unknown AFVs:

This photo was taken back in 2015 and puzzled analysts back then, which already knew well the Snow Leopard as standard. It happened to be in 2023 a new IFV. The photos showed mobility trials of the chassis alone. This is likely the replacement for the actual ZBL-08, dubbed by analysts the Type 19 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (ZBF 19), with a 30mm unmanned turret, ATGMs and 5.8mm coaxial machine gun. Called still not officially the Type 19 it shows a gunner sight with unusual layout, mostly concealed beneath the main gun shield. We will have to look more closely in the next months about this brand new PLAGF IFV, which pre-production has started since years.

This was the OA-82 Jarmila II, a Czech armoured car based on the chassis of a 1.5-ton off-road vehicle Tatra 805, featuring two BzK vz. 59 recoiless rifles for antitank support. This reconnaissance vehicle was developed in 1958-59 by AZNP in Mladá Boleslav. It stayed a prototype as after tests, production was not authorized. It's possible five were built in all for evaluation in 1959-60. It was weighting 6,834 lb for an Overall Length of 13ft 1,47in, width of 6ft 4,76in, height of 6ft 0,82in, ground Clearance of 1ft 3,75in. It had a Tatra 603 93.3 bhp engine at 4000 rpm, top speed of 50 mph and 311 mi range. See more there.