ARCHIVESHere, you'll be able to find previous new proposal entries on tank encyclopedia, going all the way back to January 2021. Military Truck archives, including half-tracks, are not included but you can fin them here. As a general rule, if it's not armoured, armed or not, tracked or not, it will be found in Truck Encyclopedia. If it's armoured, even originally a staff car, truck, of just improvized, it will be found on tank-afv.com and tank-encyclopedia.com. Truck Encyclopedia englobes not only trucks and half-tracks from WWI to this day, but also military cars, artilery tractors and specialized vehicles, from supply to repair, workshops or ambulance. Some armoured vehicles are declined into these also, and so they are proper to the other sites. On the long run it is planned to cover ALL military vehicles, period.
The M32 ARV was the second (Armoured) Recovery Vehicle fielded by the US Army during WW2, better refined with early experience in this very new field of research. It was to succeed the M31 ARV based on the now obsolete M3 Lee Medium Tank, and produced on the M4, M4A1 (cast hull) and also M4A2, A3 shermans. More were built (1562) from late 1943 to 1945 than any other type. They served in Sicily-Italy by the fall of 1943, France from the summer of 1944, and Germany in 1945 but not the Pacific. They had a set of well-thought tricks which really setup a standard at the time.
The Type 99A and A2 are the latest evolution of the elite Chinese PLA Main Battle Tank today. It is a much improved Type 99 developed from 2003 and tested since 2007, new standard deployed in 2011. Among changes: Driver's hatch moved, Invar-type ATGM, 3rd generation ERA, active protection system, larger arrow shaped turret, more compact hull and new 1500 hp engine as well as a laser warning receiver.
The 2S4 Tulypan is a Soviet 240 mm self-propelled heavy mortar, semi-automatic and the largest of such system in use today. 588 were built from 1969 to 1988 and it was exported to Czechoslovakia, Iraq, and today still used by Syria, Kazakhstan and Russia which possessed 40 in active service prior to the war in Ukraine, 26 lost, 350 in reserve. They were deployed in several conflicts from Afghanistan to the Donbass.
The Car, Armoured, Mark I, Fox I (1943) was an adaptation of the Humber Mark III British armoured car for Canadian manufacturing, using a General Motors Canada CMP C-15 (Chevrolet) chassis and engine, combined with a hull identical to the original. The armament was changed to one Browning cal.50 and one cal.03 M1919A4 instead of the original Besa. In total 1,506 were built until early 1945, and they were gradually phased out in favour of the Staghound. They were used in Italy by the Poles, UK (for training, then in Europe) and India, and after the war by the Dutch in Indonesia and the Portuguese in Africa. Their career ended after the 1974 Carnation revolution.
The Type 98 Main Battle Tank (WZ-123, ZTZ-99, Project 9910 was derived from the Type 90-II prototype as China's first 3rd generation main battle tank, but not produced. Instead it is largely seen as a preserie for the Type 99 (ZTZ-99) Main Battle Tank produced so far to circa 1,200 including variants and considered the elite MBTs of the Chinese PLAN.
The Panhard EBR ETT was an Armoured Personal Carrier variant of the famous 1950s oscillating turret innovative armoured car. The conversion was decided for tests and two prototypes made, but ultimately rejected for service. Instead, 28 were purchased by Portugal which used these in Angola, Mozambique and in the 1974 Carnation Revolution.
The The Kurganets-25 is a multirole platform rated for 25 ton, designed to be amphibious, NBC protected and highly modular. It was declined into an infantry fighting vehicle and armored personnel carrier and planned to replace the BMP, BMD, MT-LB and other legacy types. Given its ambitious target, the Kurganets-25 not only have a modular interior, but also modular armor, mission-tailored. First public presentation was the Red Square May 2015 victory parade but initially with its turret and main armament shrouded in rehearsals with pre-production starting by 2016, certifications still going on in 2020-2023 with extensive trials and some changes notably on the chassis.
As part of improvised armored vehicles designed for the Home Guards to face a possible German invasion in the late summer of 1940, one vehicle was intended for air defense of aircraft factories, called "Beaver-Eel" in honor of Lord Beaverbrook, initiator of their construction. The official name became for the Royal Ordnance was "Leyland Tour C Armored Tender". These summarily were based on the 3-ton 6x4 Leyland Retriever. Armament varied between Lewis machine guns, vintage 20-mm Hispano Zuiea HS404 or even older Vickers 1.5-pounder COW gun from the depots. In all 336-340 (depending on sources) were converted and used by the Royal Air Force until 1944 for the protection of airfields and factory, initially for the Battle of Britain.
The T-55 AGM is perhaps the most advanced upgrade for the T-55 today, which fought recently in Yemen, Nagorno-Karabakh, Ethopia, Sudan... and Ukraine. Kharkiv Morozov created a rather radical upgrade package portable on similar T-62 or Type 59 Main Battle Tanks. With a new main cannon, RWS system, powerpack and gearbox, tracks and revised drivetrain, better fire control system, new ERA and armour package, new NBC system, new smoke dischargers, extinguishers, the vehicle is considerably enchanced and was from 2012 proposed for export, with a derivative made for Peru so far, the Tifon 2.
The Nagmashot (Nagmasho't) is considered the world's first modern heavy Armored Personnel Carrier (HAPC). In 1982, the IDF command saw its fleet of Sho't Kal main battle tank ageing. These non-fully upgraded Centurions were less useful than a potential conversion into a heavy type, to address the lack of protection of conventional APCs in combat. The Hebrew term for an APC "Nagma" was added to "Sho't" to form its name. Many more will follow, upgraded over time. Their actual numbers within Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is blurry, and it is likely all had been converted to more advanced variants: None is listed today in IDF inventory.
The Sd.Kfz.123 Panzerkampfawgen II Ausf L "Luchs" ("lynx") was a WW2 German light tank developed between 1940 and 1942 by Daimler-Benz and MAN. It shared little with previous versions of the Panzer II (1936) having a thicker, larger hull, a Schachtellaufwerk drivetrain, better engine for higher performances, "slack track" configuration and better radios. It was to be the next organic reconnaissance tank the Wehrmacht lacked, but the grand plans of having 600+ delivered by 1944 petered out as only 100 were built from September 1943 to January 1944 (plus four Ausf. M conversions). They served on the Eastern front, many being lost during the offensive on Kursk salient (Operation Citadel) while the survivors and later batches were seen in Normany in the summer of 1944, where two were captured, now in Bovington and Saumur.
The AMX-30C1 Shahine was the third and last of missile carrier variants based on the French AMX-30 chassis. Alo called the AMX-30SA, it was developed in 1975 for Saudi Arabia, to fire the SA-10 Shahine, a local version of the Crotale surface-to-air missile from Thomson-CSF. The vehicle is still currently in service or storage, with 36 delivered. This vehicle was proposed as a logical piece of the major "palm tree contract", based on the AMX-30 Main Battle Tank and its numerous derivatives, all acquired with other French armoured vehicles. This is accompanied by a full review of the Saudi Arabian military, tanks and armoured vehicles (work in progress).
The SBA-60K2 Bulat armored personnel carrier (APC) was developed by Kamaz and Zaschita in 2010-2013 as a BPM-97 6x6 vehicle development as a MRAP vehicle. 15 were purchased by the Russian Army by late 2014, ordering 50 more from Zashcita. The vehicle was not deployed in Ukraine recently.
The FV432 was the armoured personnel carrier developed as part of the FV430 modular series. When production ended in 1971, almost 1,500 FV 432 and 2,500 to 3,000 vehicles used the FV 430 chassis, making it the bedrock of British motorized infantry units in the cold war, in particular the BAOR in Germany. Variants were used by the REME and Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery. Phased out of service in favour of the Saracen 6x6 and later the Warrior and CVR(T), 54 were upgraded so stay in service in the 2020s until August 2006 by BAE Systems as the Mark III Bulldog to be used in Afghanistan and Iraq ("force protection initiative"). This story is not over, including possible use by the Ukrainians in the present conflict.
The M1128 Mobile Gun System (MGS) is (was now) an interim vehicle specific for the replacement of the light tank, Vietnam veteran M551 Sheridan, retired after the 1991 Gulf War. The quest for its replacement spanned decades and is now resolved with the actual M10 Booker. The M1128 MGS from GLDS was ordered in 2002 alongside the Stryker family as a completely different solution better adapted for the asymetric conflicts of the time. This was however not a sucess, and only 142 were made from 2002 to 2010 by General Dynamics Land Systems. Integrated into the current Stryker brigade combat teams, their planned retirement started in 2022.
The SO-152 (GRAU 2S3 Akatsiya) is a Soviet 152.4 mm self-propelled gun. It was first developed in 1968 to answer the American 155 mm M109 howitzer. Development started in 1967, an it completed, accepted for service in 1971 entered service. Its GRAU designation is 2S3. Following the ironic flower naming tradition of Soviet SPGs, "Akatsiya" (Акация) stands for "Acacia".
The T55AM2B is one of the last, but not the very last evolution of the T-55, born in 1959. After the T-54B, the Czech built T55AM and AM2, the AM2B is the final coldwar non-Soviet evolution of the type. Only a handful were so modernized and served in both the East German and Czech armies before the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. Passed to the successor states, the East German ones soon found new international customers (along with the postwar Polish T-55AM2BP): Cambodia (50), Sudan (20), Slovakia still having 206 by 1995.
The Al Fao (or Al Faw) is a rather peculiar self-propelled artillery vehicle inspired by the South African G6 Rhino and designed by controversial Canadian engineer Gerald Bull to carry a massive 210 mm/53 caliber howitzer capable of firing accelerated 109 kgs shells to 57 km away. Like the Majnoon it was born from an Iraqi specification in 1987 to out-range Iranian M107s. Both prototypes were assembled in time for the Baghdad arms exhibition fair in May 1989. However after the invasion of kuwait, all hopes to produce them vanished (as both vehicles).
The JVBT-55 The JVBT-55A ("crane recovery bulldozer tank") is a project of Czech, T-55A based CRV with higher load capacity that the Soviet-built VT-55A (20 t) and able to lift heavier equipment (turret system, medium tanks) for field repairs, levelling terrain. It was developed by Turčianské strojírny n.p. Martin in 1967, protoype tested in 1970 and production started in 1974 until 1983 with 508 vehicles made in all. Protection wise, the hull retains all the advantages of the T-55A tank.
The BMD-4 for Boyevaya Mashina Desanta-4 or "Combat Vehicle of the Airborne" is so far the latest infantry fighting vehicle of the Russian airborne (VDV), planned to succeed to the BMD-3 in service since 1990. It was originally designated BMD-3M as based on the same chassis, however so many modifications were made to the turret, that its capabilities were augmented (notably with a new hunter-killer capability, better sights, etc.). So far, c300 has been built, with the objective of equipping 11 batallions of the VDV with 31 of these each (341) plus spares by 2023. An APC and several specialized vehicles has been derived. The BMD-4 sees service in the current war in Ukraine.
The Spähpanzer Luchs ("Lynx") was a West German 8x8 amphibious reconnaissance armoured fighting vehicle (Spähpanzer), in service from 1975 to 2009. The Bundeswehr used 408 of these with the armoured reconnaissance battalions facing the "grenz" during the cold war. Developed by Daimler-Benz between 1968 and 1975 it replaced both the the M41 light tank and Schützenpanzer SPz 11-2 Kurz IFV. Very similar to more modern 8x8 AFVs, it was replaced itself by the current massive KMW Boxer from 2009 (38 tons in battle order versus 19.5 tons). It's the perfect example on how this category grew and scaled up over the last decades.
The M41 HMC was a self-propelled M1 155mm howitzer, started in 1942 (T64) and perfected with the adoption of the T24 chassis (M24 Chaffee) while was developed the T64E1, eventually standardized in June 1945 as the M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage later dubbed "Gorilla". The 250 order was curtailed to 85 as the war ended, but it saw action later in Korea and Indochina, bringing precious lessons for the 1960s generation of US Army self propeller artillery.
The Type 64 is a 1975 conversion of M42 Duster chassis with M18 Hellcat turrets, creating an hybrid that was quite original to answer the need of more firepower to face PLA tanks in case of an invasion in the late 1970s. A total of a single battalion worth of conversions were made. They were active until 1981 and then soon sidelined to reserve/training as new main battle tanks were received.
The Pegaso 3560 BMR was for decades, and still is today for a few more years, the main wheeled Spanish main armoured fighting vehicle, related to the Swiss Mowag Piranha and Austrian Pandur I. It was built by the only Spanish industrial heavyweight capable of undertaking this project, Pegaso. The BMR for "Blindado Medio sobre Ruedas", was a modular 6x6 armoured personal carrier (APC) declined into multiple variants, produced from 1979 and exported to six countries. It was seconded by the VEC Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) based on the same chassis. Production reached more than 1,500 with the ones built in Saudi Arabia.
The 2S5 Giatsint-S (Russian: 2С5 "Гиацинт-С") named after the hyacinth flower, is a Soviet/Russian 152 mm (6-in) self-propelled gun capable of firing further than the older 2S1 Gvodzika or 2S3 Akatsiya, even nuclear projectiles. It entered service in 1978 and is still active today with the Russian Army and Navy (still 570 in inventory and 600+ storage) and a few with Ukraine, Finland (now removed/resold), Belarus, but also exported to Ethiopia and Eritrea. Unlike turreted SPGs, the crew (except the gunner) are deploys outside of the vehicle when in use. It saw action (and still is) in Afghanistan, Chechnya, Donbass and Ukraine as of today.
Full update on the former generic Spanish Tanks Page. This is a rewrite and expansion of the older page, made clearer and deepened with the story of WW2 Panzer-IVs and STUG-IIIs and important industrial players such as Pegaso (for the BMR and VEC armored vehicles) and Santa Barbara Sistemas, tasked notably in upgrading M48, M60, AMX-30 tanks and assemble under licence in Spain the Leopard 2E. It is also responsible today, after the construction of the Pizarro IFV, of the British AJAX IFV. Updates are coming as well as the Pegaso BMR and VEC.
Major upgrade of the old article by me and Mike Ennamorato: The T-84 was a modernization of the soviet-era T-80U, a locally built variant of the T-80 which appeared in 1994 but which genesis goes back to 1974. The "BM Oplot" is the latest variant of the Ukrainian T-84, which appeared in 2009, improved in any way to match the soviet T90M and T90BM. It was not adopted by the Ukrainian Army but secured an order for Thailand (49 Oplot-T) delivered in 2016-2019. It also failed to secure an Order to Pakistan (Oplot-P) in 2023 to the Chinese VT-5.
Among NATO Nations, Turkey received the most M48 tanks from the US, starting with the M48A2. In the 1970s, they were gradually replaced by M48A5s and upgraded, leading to the T1 variant. Then Germany sold its own M48A5s making Turkey the most prolific user of the type, they were upgraded to the T2 standard. This park is still partly active (circa 750 operational) but being replaced by upgraded Leopards and the upcoming Altay.
The C15TA Armoured Truck was developed by General Motors Canada to replace the White M3 Scout Car, based on the Chevrolet C15 Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) truck chassis. Between 1943 and 1945 some 3,961 were built in the Oshawa plant in Ontario, with armoured hulls supplied by Hamilton Bridge. It was not meant for reconnaissance unlike the Otter, but rather like an armoured personal carrier, the first designed and built in Canada. It was widely used in Europe in 1944-45, starting in France and Italy, and after the war, saw action with Belgium, Greece, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, France, South Vietnam, South Africa, Malaya, Portugal and Mozambique afterwards, well helped by the commonality of parts from the 400,000 CMP trucks delivered by Canada in WW2.
The ZTL-11 fire support vehicle was developed for the Chinese PLA in 2009, also called Type 11 assault gun. It is based on the ZBL-08 with a new tailored turret for a 100 mm high velocity gun. It is mostly used by the army but allegedly also by the Chinese marines, and is the only fuly amphibious support fire vehicle of its kind, prominently shown in amphibious exercizes and on the frontline for the planned invasion of Taiwan.
The Type 4 Ha-To was a heavy self-propelled mortar developed by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. It was designed as a mobile fire support platform in late 1943, making use of the Type 3, 300 mm (12-inches) heavy mortar in the IJA inventory mounted on a chassis mixing elements of the Type 4 Chi-So and Chi-To carrier. Only a single prototype and three serial vehicles were ever built in 1944-45, never used.
The ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" is a lightly armored Soviet self-propelled, radar-guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). Still in service despite its partial replacement by the 2K22 Tunguska (1982). With 6500 produced it was exported to 23 countries, and still in service in most of these. The Shilka remains today the most available SPAAG worlwide, having seen combat around the world from 1966 to this day in Ukraine.
The ZSU-37 was the very first Soviet Self Propelled Gun (SPAAG). Many more will follow. The type was developed to an artform by the Wehrmacht, deployed by the allies with the M13, M14, M16, M17 Halftracks, but USSR did not possessed that type until late in the war. The model 37 was developed from the end of 1943, produced at Works No. 40 in Mytishchi. ZSU stands for "Zenitnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka" ("SPAAG"). Many more will follow in the cold war and USSR will produce and export more than any other country in the following decade, up to the actual 2K22 Tunguska.
The Humber light Reconnaissance Car was designed by Humber to he produced in mass by Rootes Group in 1940-43, with 3,600 delivered in all versions. They soldiered with British, Canadian and Czech reconnaissance units from Tunisia in 1942 to Italy and northern Europe from D-Day to the streets of Hamburg in 1944-45.
The 2S31 Vena is Russian amphibious self-propelled 120 mm mortar system, so given the 2S31 is GRAU designation. Based on the BMP-3, it is given a large arrawy of ammunitions, and a new advanced targeting system. Thought as the army version of the VDV's 2S9 Nona, it was first revealed in 1997, produced from 2010. only 18 vehicles were delivered so far to Azerbaidjan, with about a dozen for evaluation in Russia. No vehicle has been deployed in Ukraine yet.
Paulista War Tanks and Armoured Fighting Vehicles
In 1932, between July and October, a fierce civil war erupted between the state of Sao Paulo and the rest of Brazil, contesting the rule of president Getúlio Vargas. Some wished to establish a new constitution, some a full separation. An army was born to topple over the government in Rio de Janeiro, and soon war raged between the "Federalists" and "Paulistas", with tens of thousands of troops, artillery, machine-guns, aviation and a naval blockade. If the former used relatively few tanks but the Renault FT, the second created eight armored vehicles based on cars, tractors and trucks, alongside six armoured trains. Here is this forgotten story.
The BTR-4 "Bucephalus" («Буцефал») or Romanized as Butsefal after Alexander the great horse, is an amphibious 8x8 wheeled infantry fighting vehicle designed in Ukraine by the Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau. Despite a limited production of c800 vehicles, the vehicle was exported used extensively in the recent Russo-Ukrainian War from 2014, but also by Iraqi Forces, taking part notably in the capture of Jurf al-Nasr from ISIL. The BR-4 has been declined into eight main versions and also serves with Indonesia, Nigeria and Myanmar.
The prototypes of the LVTP-6 serie were an attempt to create a modern amphibious APC. Born from the US Navy Bureau of Ships, the new vehicle was based on the a much shorter chassis using the same roadhweels as the standard M113 and was to be a way cheaper version of the LVTP-5, at 41,000 Ib in battle order with a payload still of 10,000 Ib, 8000 waterborne, or 20 equipped Marines. Both military engines and conversions were tried, and a Chrysler engine-transmission was ultimately chosen but the vehicle ultimately never made it into production. Instead after many further development years, the choice fell on the new LVTP-7, a compromise between both. The latter is still in service, whereas the LVTP-6 remained a prototype.
The M-1977 122mm self propelled (SP) gun/howitzer is another typical North Korean product, a mix between the mass-built VT-322 APC coupled with the 122mm D-30 gun-howitzer, with enclosed sides and open top. It is called more simply "M 1977" as its real designation is unknown to this day by western/asean Intel services. The M1977 designation was allocated by the US Department of Defense, based on year this system was first observed by US intelligence. But it is dated 1976 as a matter of common understanding that it was likely built and designed a year before being introduced and observed.
The Bison is a Canadian variant related to the American LAV-II produced by General motors, and itself a derivative of the Swiss MOWAG Piranha 8x8, one of the most successful western wheeled multirole vehicle of the last three decades. It was to replace the GDLS-Canada 6x6 family of Armoured Vehicle General Purpose (AVGP) Grizzly and Cougar of the seventies in a more dedicated, specialized package. The vehicle was accepted in 1990 and is still in service with the Canadian Armed Forces after a refit in the 2000s, partially replaced by the LAV-III, then the LAV-6 in this decade, and pending replacement in the 2040s by a brand new modular vehicle, yet unknown.
The PTS is a Soviet tracked amphibious transport started as Ob'yekt 65 in 1962 and introduced in 1965. It was armoured and had a payload of 10 tons, many more than the previous BAV 485, a postwar adaptation of the US DUKW, with better cross-country performance and rear ramp. In the 1970s was introduced the improved PTS-M and later appeared other variants PTS-2 to 4. The PTS-M was exported to 20 countries and saw a lot of action.
The Talbot was a British armoured car built on the chassis of a Clément-Talbot tourer and if 21 were ordered, only a small numbers were gradually converted to several patterns, from improvized open-top to turreted pattern vehicle in late 1915. The Talbot armoured cars saw an intensive service with the R.N.A.S. in 1914-1915 alongside Rolls-Royce and Delaunay-Belleville among others. This is a rather foggy vehicle due to the lack of documentation an improvized nature of the project, as they were intended to rescue pilots behind enemy lines.
The HQ-7 (For "Hongqi"-7 (hóng qí) meaning "red flag" or "red banner"), is the name of a ground-to-air AA short range missile developed in China from the R-440 Crotale ("Rattlesnake") missile. Development of the HQ-7 system in 1980 started on a 4x4 armoured carrier called P20 based on the French Hotchkiss P4R. The vehicle was not exported and replaced by the new 6x6 HQ-7A FM-90 introduced from 1998, the current short SPAAML of the Chinese PLA.
The Sd.Kfz. 6/2 Selbstfahrlafette was a German self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery of WW2. It was based on the Sd.Kfz.6 Zugkraftwagen 5t prime mover and engineers vehicle. It was designed to support Luftwaffe units integrated into armoured divisions, tasked for anti-aircraft protection. 339 were converted, in a process starting in 1941 and completed in 1943. It was eventually replaced by the cheaper and larger Sd.Kfz 7/2.
The Avibras ASTROS is a multiple rocket launcher system developed by Avibras Indústria Aeroespacial. The name ASTROS stands for the acronym of "sistema de artillería de cohetes" or "Artillery Saturation Rocket System". It could be configured to launch different types of rockets with ranges of up to 300 km. In service with the Brazilian Army since the 1980s it was exported notably to Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Indonesia seeing action in the Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Yemeni Civil War among others.
The LECLERC DNG/DCL and the EPG are today's French Army Main Engineering Vehicles. Developed by GIAT industries back in 1994, the serie is now maintained by Nexter/NTDS. The first EPG, mine-sweeping variant, rolled in 2001, but the program was not followed, the contrary pf the DNG (Leclerc Tank dedicated salvage vehicle) and the DCL with a serie taking place in the 2000s, now used by France and the UAE.
The Humber Scout Car was a British light scout car entering service in 1942, and in production until 1945. This was Humber's response to the Damiler Dingo being in huge demands, and used thesame basic specifications. It was to be also used for reconnaissance and liaison between units, but was much heavier and larger. Both protection and armament were minimal, the crew of only two had access to a radio and Bren Guns for defence. Being much heavier and larger it could not compare to the more famous Daimler Dingo, but still evade what it could not fight. The Daimler Ferret armoured car was inspired by in 1952.
The ZBD-97 (1997) and ZBD-04 (2004) are two faces of the same coin. Before the ZBD-04, was the ZBD-97 (Factory designation WZ502), a fully tracked infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) developed for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The ZBD-97 entered service in 1999 to early 2000s while the ZBD-04 entered service in 2006. Both are designed to serve independently of, or in coordination with main battle tanks. They carries a fully equipped infantry squad whole covering them with heavy fire support, while keeping amphibious capabilities. The ZBD-04 (ZBD-97 main production run) is today deployed with the Guangzhou and Nanjing military regions. It was declined into multiple variants, including an Ambutank, Engineering Vehicle and Anti-tank missile vehicle as well as an ARV and evolved into the improved ZBD-04A. In all about 400 of these amphibious IFVs has been produced, shared by the PLA and PLAN's Chinese Marines and likely to be used for the invasion of Taiwan. We will go more into sub-variants in the following weeks.
The French Berliet VXB-170 was designed as an armored personal carrier (APC) in 1969, competing against Renault's VAB for the largest post-WW2 army procurement program (the equivalent today would be the scorpion program). Berliet was not chosen, but found a customer with the Gendarmerie which looked years later for a similar vehicle for crowd and riot control. Then three export customers followed. When Berliet was acquired by Renault in 1978 however, the VXB was seen as a competitor for the VAB and terminated after 179 vehicles built.
Full review of the Bandgadesh Armoured Forces, all models in use since the 1971 Liberation war of "East Pakistan": T-54, Type 59, 59 Durjoy, MBT-2000, VT-5, BTR-70, 70, Type 63 Tank, Type 63 APC, IFV, SPH, MT-LB, Otokar Cobra... Also, history, organization, detailed units, and operations: Bangladesh is probably the largest UN contributor given the country's budget.
The Type 59 Durjoy (“invincible” in Bengali) is essentially a highly modernized Chinese Type 59 for the Bangladesh Army similar to the Type 59G standard made at the 902 Central Workshop of the Bangladesh Machine Tools Factory, with Chinese assistance. The Durjoy is now the one and only specific MBT of the Bangladesh Army, shared by none. Most sources agrees the Army possesses a tital park of 174 nowadays. The upgrade program started in 2014, with the first in service in 2015 as a good complement to the VT-1 and MBT-2000. The Durjoy is also a good proposition to keep frontline aging Type 59s still in service around the world.
The XM734 was an another project related to the MICV 65 program the first step towards the long development of the M2 Bradley. Unlike the more advanced XM701 this was FMC's modification of the basic M113 with a centrally-mounted fuel tank, bunks facing outwards gun ports, plus other details. The six allegedly built were tested at Aberdeen, but this led the Army to ask for the improved XM765.
The UR-77 belongs to this rare category of armored vehicles called MICLIC, a specialized missile/rocker firing mine clearing vehicle, using a flexible hose filled with explosive to clear up large paths in minefields practicable by infantry and vehicles alike. Based on the 2S1 Gvodzika chassis, the few UR-77 built (accepted in 1977) were passed on to Russia, and exported in small numbers to Azerbaidjan and Syria. Together they saw a lot of action, including in the current war in Ukraine.
The XM-701 Infantry Combat Vehicle from Canadian Car and Foundy, was part of MICV-65 programme. It was to create an experimental, interim Infantry Fighting Vehicle leading to the later MICV-70 programme. Later redesigned it became the M2 Bradley. It was the first step in its development, in a sense killed by the arrival of the Soviet BMP-1, not satisfactory trials and redefinition of specifications in 1967-68. This is the start of a serie on the lineage leading to the M2 Bradley in 2023.
15.04.2021: Fiat 6614 (1972)
The FIAT Tipo 6614 was a 4x4 armoured personal carrier developed in the 1970s to answer some Italian Army specifiications for a cheap vehicle, that was to be use later by the Italian police and Carabineri units as well as the Air Force or the army in peace-keeping deployments. It was also widely exported. It was also declined into the FIAT 6614 infantry fighting Vehicle and South Korean KM-900.
10.04.2021: M31 TRV (1941)
The early standard T2 Tank Retreiver (TRV) became the M31 ARV when standardized in late 1942. It was produced or converted from existiing M3 Lee and Grant Medium Tanks. They were the first purpose tracked recovery armoured vehicles used by the US Army, also sent to the Soviets and Free French as lend-lease as well. They were used until the very end of the war, despite their sucessor, the M32, was based on the M4 Sherman, declared standard in October 1943 already.
05.04.2021: Canadian Armoured Autocar (1914)
The Armoured Autocar was an armoured vehicle, more a mobile, motorized armoured machin gun nest than an armoured personal carrier or even a regular armoured car as it had no turret. Initiated by French Canadian captain Raymond Brutinel, this vehicle was funded by him and with the support of the Minister for the Canadian militia in 1914, resulting in the creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, world's first motorized unit of that kind anywhere in the world. Although the static nature of the Western front did not gave them much occasions of sustained action, the German spring offensive in 1918 saw them used in active defense and later, taking part in the last offensives, when mobility returned to the battlefield.
26.03.2021: 7.62cm Pak-36 r-Auf 5t Zugkraftwagen Selbstfahrlafette ausf SdKfz.6/3 "Diana" (1940)
The 7.62cm Pak-36 r-Auf 5t Zugkraftwagen Selbstfahrlafette ausf SdKfz.6/3, more commonly known "Diana" was a rare conversion (only nine) of the Sd.Kfz.6 troop transport and artillery tractor half track of the Wehrmacht, first designed in 1936 and initially produced by Büssing-NAG, and Mercedes from 1942. It was a tank-hunter conversion featuring a Russian 76.2 mm F-22 universal gun, protected by an armoured box. They were all used (and lost) in North Africa with the Deutsche Afrika Korps and 605 Pzabt.(mot), together with the Panzerjäger-I, also using a captured gun.
22.03.2021: BTR-D (1974)
The BTR-D was Soviet's airborne troops armoured personal carrier (APC). It was developed following reports of the limitations in the field of the BMD-1 airborne IFV, too cramped to carry effectively four soldiers. In effect, the BTR-D reused much of its IFV brother, but with no turret and a much larger compartment, and longer wheeltrain. Armed with just two PKT bow machine guns, it is a pure APC able to carry three paratroopers in addition to its crew of three. The BTR-D was accepted in 1974 and deployed in all soviet airbone units in the 1970-80s. It also saw service in several conflicts and had been upgraded and declined into a multitude of variants, like the "Nona" self propelled gun. Still active with the Russian, Ukrainan armies and others today.
17.03.2021: Karl Gerät (1939)
The Karl Gerät self-propelled howitzer was the largest ordnance ever deployed by any belligerent during WW2, outside railway guns. Its caliber was larger than the Sturmtiger, and its range superior, and it was given tailored 60 cm caliber bunker-busting shells to deal with Belgian and French fortifications. However, the wesstern campaign ended before it could be deployed. In all seven of these were built, named after Nordic deities. They served mainly on the Russian Front, dealing with massive fortifications as Sebastopol and elsewhere, even taking part in the battle of the bulge, the warsaw uprizing, or attempting to destoy the bridge at Remagen.
08.03.2021: M752 MGM-52 TEL (1971)
The M752 was a complete tactical mobile missile system, with its TEL (Transporter Launcher Erector), comprising the MGM-52 tactical missile, fitted either with a nuclear warhead or a versatile conventional warheard, HE and fragmentation (sub-munition model), and its TEL vehicle, the M677 based on the M113, deployed from 1971 to the end of the cold war and also used by NATO counties and Israel.
01.03.2021: Carro M15/42 (1942)
The Carro Armato Medio M15/42 was the last Italian Tank for about 60 years. It was designed with a brand new, more powerful FIAT gasoline engine for increased performances and a much better, high velocity 47 mm gun. However many other aspects did not changed like the riverted armour and classic two-bogie leaf sprung suspension and drivetrain, negating the performance increase. Only a handful, perhaps 150 of these last Italian medium tank were delivered before the armistice, but production went on under German occupation, and the vehicle was declined in several variants, including a SPAAG.
25.02.2021: DAF YP 408 (1975)The DAF YP-408 started as a Royal armoured transporter of the Dutch household guards in case of impending atomic war. From a sturdy 4x6 truck chassis by DAF, its was transformed into a 6x8 APC. From this base, with over 800 manufactured, about eight main variants and six sub-variants of this vehicle was produced and used by the Dutch Army in Suriname and Lebanon, and also used by Portugal, Chile and Suriname.
19.02.2021: PHZ-89 (1989)
The type 89 was developed from 1985 to 1989 as the Chinese premier (Self-Propelled) Multiple Rocket launcher System (MRLS), approved in 1989 but entering service in 1990 so it's as much a modern vehicle than a cold war one.
10.02.2021: The SdKfz 254 (1936)
Started as a German Experiment, later copied in Austria, and took over after the Anschluss in 1939... by the Germans, the vehicle known as the Saurer RR-7 was quite unique, as the unique wheel-cum track vehicle in service with the Wehrmacht during the war. Under German supervision it was armoured, armed, and a handful were produced, around 170, used as artillery tractors and artillery observation vehicle in north africa and Russia under the waffenamt designation Sd.Kfz.254.
06.02.2021: The 2K12 Kub (SA-6 "Gainful" Carrier)
The 2K12 "Kub" was the main tracked armoured carrier for the medium-range anti-aircraft ground-to-air missile SA-6 (NATO codename "Gainful"). In service from 1967, it has been designed by NIIP/Vympel and MMZ (GM chassis) and manufactured by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant unti 1985 to around 500 vehicles, and declined into the 2K12 Kub, 2K12E Kvadrat (export version), 2K12M3, 2K12M4, exported 33 countries, and seeing action in a dozen conflicts, still in service today.
30.01.2021: The M60 Sabra (1993)
The M60T Sabra was an Israeli radical modernization of the M60T, which was the already modified Turkish version of the M60 Patton Main Battle Tanks, of which thousands have been delivered to the Turkish armed forces since the 1980s. The M60T Sabra is derived from the Magach 7 and numerous Israeli versions of the M60 Tank. It has been produced to around 300 vehicles, deployed notably in Syria and Libya among others.
22.01.2021: The BMD-2 (1985)
The Soviet BMD-2 was the second IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicles) developed specifically for the paratroopers. It was basically a modernized BMD-1, according to the lessons of Afghanistan, made to operate in such theater of operations. However the collapse of USSR meant the BMD-2, which development started in 1981 had a production run at Volgograd Tractor Plant of about 2,500 vehicles, stopped in 1991. It was modernized since, an the version M is intended to upgrade all vehicles, of which around 850 are in service today, for 1,500 in reserve and a few in Ukraine. They saw action in several conflicts but are now superseded by the larger BMD-3 and are to be replaced by the BMD-4 in the 2020s.
18.01.2021: The Type 90-II MTB
The Chinese PLA Type 90 Main Battle Tank represented an evolutionary step, proceeded from the T-85, which in turn was a Chinese copy of the T-72. But if the Type 90 shared most of its components with the Type 85, the turret was heavily modified to house a brand new 125 mm smothbore autoloaded main gun. Known in its variant II, derived from the Type 85-IIM, it also introduced ERA semi-active protection. The Type 90-II was refused for production by the PRC but its development went on for export solely, leading to the VT-1 and Al-Khalid, for which 550 had been built for six customers.
15.01.2021: The SU-122/54
The Soviet SU-122/54 was a tank hunter developed in 1948-1954 with many delays, on the ever changing basis of the T-54 medium tank, to carry the 122 mm D49 tank gun, and to perform the role of US/British heavy tank destroyer. The gap bewteen the first three roadwheels made some NATO experts believed it was base don the T-62 chassis. Since priorities changes however during production, it was cut to just 77 vehicles, and their service lasted until the 1970s.